List of 4th ICRMCE's Papers, Authors and Presentations

Keynote Session

Title Author Presentation's File
Progressive precast and demountable construction system from HPC for sustainable and resilient buildings Petr Hajek, Czech Technical University, Czech
Leveraging AI in Asset Maintenance Chan Weng Tat, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Rehabilitation of Corrosion of Reinforcement for Sustainable Construction Muhammad bin Ismail, UTM, Malaysia
Bio-engineering for erosion control and slope stabilization in Thailand: research and practice Apiniti Jotisankasa, Kasetsart University, Thailand
Waterproofing Practices in Australia for the Building ConstructionSri Ravindrarajah Rasiah, University Technology of Sidney, Australia
Seeing Surakarta Based On Civil Geotechnical Engineering Perspective-Challenges And Opportunities Yusep Muslih Purwana, Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Indonesia

Parallel Session

No ID Title Authors Presentation's File
1 1 Data Mining Applied for National Road Maintenance Decision Support System Andri Irfan Rifai, Susanty Handayani, Ronal Al Rasyid

National roadsare one of the main networks of a country's transportation system. To maintain the performance level of national roads requires a well-structured pavement management system (PMS). The decision support system (DSS) is inseparable in the modern PMS,which required the development of a new approach for the DSS in support of national road network maintenance. The proposed model integrates data mining (DM) and geographical information system (GIS) to construct a simple DSS. The DM applied to simulate the optimization of the pavement maintenance process and the GIS usean interface application. Historical data on the national road network in West Java, Indonesia is used as a case study. Examples show that the proposed model can determine a decision support solution efficiently. In addition, a user-friendly computer interface is developed so that PMS stakeholders can plan pavement maintenance simply and effectively.
2 3 A structural performance evaluation of vertical housing model due to the increased seismic loads in Semarang, Indonesia using a pushover analysis Arnie Widyaningrum, Yanuar Haryanto, Nor Intang Setyo Hermanto

The substantial increase in design response spectrum is resulted from the Indonesian seismic regulation changes, which occur in Semarang as well, either for hard, medium or soft site class.The increased design response spectrum is linear to the increased seismic loads, which may influence the structural performance of buildings in Semarang. We have conducted a study on the influence of increased seismic loads on the performance of an irregularten-story vertical housing model of medium site classin Semarang, Indonesia. The study is conducted using a pushover analysis. We find that theincreased seismic loads in Semarang, Indonesiahas resulted in the increased base shear force and structural drift of the analysed vertical housing model. The base shear force increases by68.96% in X direction and 66.63% in Y direction, while thestructural drift ratio increases by81.25% in X direction and 82.64% in Y direction. However, the structural performance remains at Immediate Occupancy, which refers to a condition of post-earthquake damage where the building is still regarded assafe to live in.
3 4 Proposed Concrete Compaction Method Using An Electrical Internal Vibrator: A Review Of Compaction Standard For Concrete In Laboratory According To Sni 2493:2011 Agus Maryoto

SNI 2493:2011 is the Indonesian National Standard containing the procedures for the manufacture and maintenance of concrete specimens in the laboratory. This standard regulates the way that compaction of compressive specimensis performed using internal vibrators in addition to manual compaction. Unfortunately, the amount and duration of vibrator compaction using an internal vibrator are not specified in the standard. This study examines the effect of vibrator duration when using an internal vibrator to compact concrete compressive strength specimens. The specimens used are of cylinders with diameter 15 mm and height 30 cm. 30 specimens were formed by each of the three concrete compaction methods used. The first type is whereconcrete is compacted manually by a tamping rod, 25 times each layer. The tamping rod is of 16 mm diameter and 62 cm height. The second type is compaction is by using internal vibrator, with 3 compactions per layer, each for 2 seconds. The third type also uses the internal vibrator, except the duration of each compaction is for 5 seconds. The results of compressive strength tests show that the compressive strength of the concrete compacted with the internal vibrator is about 10% higher than when manually compacting the concrete using a tamping rod. This proposed compaction of concrete by using an internal vibrator can be used as an alternative to manualcompaction in the manufacture of concrete compressive strength specimens.
4 5 Analysis Of Air Pollution Caused By Mass Transportation Design Changes Ismiyat Ismiyati, Budiman Napitupulu, Mudjiastuti Handajani

Seen in some cities in Indonesia that traffic jam is caused by the high of private vehicles usage impact to the high level of air pollution. The impact is city’s quality decreased and impact to society health. Aims of this study are: to identify and analyze air pollution level in the study area by analyzing mass transportation development related to the air pollution to reach the standard limit.. Approaching method used by measuring air pollution level using Dust Sampler and calculating traffic volume, while analyzing method using simulation method. Study results show that air pollution level in the study area pass over the limit required by Minister of Health and Environment Decree (Kep-041/MENKLH/04/2014), where traffic jams level indicated by DS (Degree of Saturation) value in the study area has the average > 0.75. Simulation result shows that by changing to 100 passenger capacity mass transportation (BRT) will reduce level of traffic jam until DS: 0.2201 to 0.291 and reduce the air pollution NOx 48.19 %; SO2 51,77 %; PM 29.86%; Pb 52.22%; CO52.15%. Suggestions from this study are to plan the mass transportation should aware to level of pollution, using big capacity of mass transportation and integrate to residential areas.
5 6 Rice Husk As An Alternative Energy For Cement Production And Its Effect On The Chemical Properties Of Cement Agus Maryoto, Gathot Heri Sudibyo

Production of rice husk in Central Java province is around 2,825,000 tonne annually. It can be used as an alternative energy source to substitute for coal in combustion during cement production. This study was conducted to determine the impact of rice husk as a substitute energy source in cement production. The observations of rice husk comprised calorimetric tests, physical and chemical tests, and percentage rice husk substitution for coal as firing energy. The chemical properties of the cement tested include the chemical content, MgO and SO3 contents, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, and total alkali. The results show that the chemical content of cement which is produced using rice husk as a substitutefor coal in the combustion process still meets the Indonesian National Standard.
6 7 Performance Analysis of Gilingan’s Underpass Development Setiono, Budi Yulianto

The prevalence of annual increasing use of motorized vehicles requires improvements in infrastructure to support the reliability of urban transport systems in Surakarta City. The Government of Surakarta City has attempted to improve the infrastructure of Viaduct Gilingan become an underpass. The traffic performance of the model developed is analysed using Indonesian Capacity Manual 1997(IHCM 1997). The result shows that the development of Underpass Gilingan has a potency to improve the performance of Jenderal Ahmad Yani road and the performance of Balapan Intersection and Cengklik Intersection. The change of public transport routes of goods (freight) and people to Jenderal Ahmad Yani road has anopportunity to reduce acute congestion at Joglo Intersection and decrease the accident rate in Monginsidi road.
7 8 Analysis of Signalized Intersection Performance Using IHCM 1997 Method and PTV Vistro Software Budi Yulianto, Setiono, Adventaras Bani Setiawan, Dyan Radite Wijaya Putra

Brigjend Slamet Riyadi road is the main city road serving the population movement of Surakarta City. It is located in the Central Business District so that many vehicles pass through this road. Relatively high traffic volume in Brigjend Slamet Riyadi road affects the signalized intersections performance along this road. This study analyses the signalized intersections performance along Brigjend Slamet Riyadi road by using IHCM 1997 method and PTV Vistro software. The IHCM 1997 method is traffic modelling method based on empirical Indonesian traffic conditions. While PTV Vistrois traffic modelling software based on empirical United States America traffic conditions. Analysis of the signalized intersections performance results using both approaches is compared with the field data. Calibration and validation of models is carried out to see the similarity of traffic performance results between models with field data. In general, IHCM 1997 method produces vehicle queue length closer to field data than PTV Vistro software. IHCM 1997 method tends to produce lower degree of saturation, vehicle delay and level of service than PTV Vistro software.
8 9 Building evaluation using two components of acceleration time histories causes by shallow crustal fault earthquakes with maximum magnitude 7 Mw Windu Partono, Masyhur Irsyam, Indrastono Dwi Atmanto, Andi Retno Ari Setiaji, Sigit Purnomo, Robby Yanuar Setiawan

Spectral acceleration and acceleration time histories are the two seismic load parameters generally used for dynamic analysis of a building. Structural design of building is implemented using spectral acceleration at the ground surface obtained from the national seismic code. However, acceleration time histories are developed from specific earthquake event and implemented for building evaluation. This paper presents building evaluations of three existing buildings located in Semarang having at least a minimum of 40 meters height. All the three buildings were built on three different soil types, i.e. hard soil, medium soil and soft soil. The evaluation was performed by conducting two components (North-South/NS and East-West/EW directions) of acceleration time histories modified from Semarang fault earthquake scenarios having maximum magnitude 7 Mw and maximum epicentre distance 15 km. Due to incomplete data of Semarang fault earthquakes, the acceleration time histories incorporated herein were collected from worldwide earthquake databases and modified using response spectral matching and seismic propagation analysis. Stability analysis in terms of structural deformation and drift ratio were carried out for the three buildings. Results show that all three buildings have a capability for resisting earthquakes to a maximum of 6.5 Mw and epicentre distance greater than 5 Km.
9 10 The Interrelationship between ISTN lake, Babakan lake and the surrounding wells of shallow groundwater using stable isotopes ? 2H and ? 18O for the LakeBank Filtration potential W. Marsiano, S. Syafalni, Wawan Kuswaya, M Falaqi Djamhuri, BungKus Pratikno

Theinvestigation of the interrelationship between shallow groundwater and lake waterisone of the importantcharacteristicsin groundwater basinresearch. An understanding ofthe locationproperties,can be used for the lakebankfitrationpontential evaluation. The objective of this research was to describe the interrelationship of shallow groundwater and the lake water from ISTNlake and Babakan lake.An effective tracer in groundwater basin researchcan usethe environmental isotopes methodfor revealing theinterrelationship between lake water and surrounding shallow groundwater. This research was conducted by taking samples of shallow groundwater from the surrounding wells around theISTNlake and Babakan lake. Based on isotopes ? 2H vs. ? 18O results, the shallow groundwater ofthe surrounding wellsoriginated from thelakewater. The results were verified withStudent test distribution using 95% confidence level which showed that all samples were in one cluster. From the analysis of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the samples locations, all ofthesamples were in range of fresh water but the pH of some samples was lower than the pH of drinking water requirement, so the pH should be improved before consumption.
10 12 Towards Competitive Traditional Market through Infrastructure Performance and Redefinition Categories: A Case in Semarang City Ferry Hermawan, Ismiyati Ismiyati, Himawan Indarto

The revitalization of Indonesian Traditional Market has prolonged problems becoming never-ending story particularly on public building standard in the last decade. A competitive traditional market is a folk’s hope, where the affordable prices and infrastructure are the central consideration. This research aims to figure out the current condition of Indonesian Traditional Market and the needs of future policy towards a competitive environment of the marketplace in a metropolitan city context. However, the western culture has been mixed into the current management of Indonesian Traditional Market. The insight of the ideal traditional market for the metropolitan city as well as Semarang is the idealism from Indonesian public market guidance and a lesson learned from other countries. This research was conducted between 2014-2017. A case study method was applied using semi-structured interviews, document investigation of Detailed Engineering Design (DED) and field observation of registered traditional markets in Semarang. The results figure out the current implementation of Traditional Market standards in Semarang. The infrastructure performance and redefinition category among marketplaces are suggested as consideration toward the competitive traditional market on public building policy.
11 13 CONTROL OF URBAN PARKING BASED ON ZONING RATES IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION Ismiyati Ismiyati, J.I.Wicaksono, Bambang Riyanto, , M Iqbal Rajani, Rizki Parulian

Parking is urban problem in several developing countries such as Indonesia, the condition is caused by the unfulfilled service of street parking in the public space so vehicles will be on street parking. that situation causes traffic flow to be jammed. Semarang city, as a study area, can be seen that parking problem unresolved well, though “andalalin” (traffic impact analysis) has become a requirement for developers of housing, mall, hotel, restaurant, hospital or tourism areas. Research objective is to control the urban parking by developing parking rate analysis based on zoning using AHP modelresearch method by field observation and questionnaire of decided criterias of each zones, where rate analysis performed by weighting the decided criteria. research result shows that in deciding the rate based on zoning, there are several influenced criteria, land value, accessibility, value of land use, economic facility, and is obtained the highest weighting value in zone A, 8,498 represent the trade zone (BWK 1/Urban Boundaries 1) and zone B, 3,71 represent the industrial zone (BWK 4/Urban Boundaries 4), and zone C ( BWK 6/Urban Boundaries 6) with the weight of 1,867 represent the zone. research advantage is to give contribution to Semarang city government in controlling urban parking to become environmentally friendly city.
12 16 Repair of Rigid Pavement using Micro Concrete Materials Jonbi Jonbi, A.R Indra Tjahjani, Nuryani Tinumbia, A.M. Pattinaja , Bambang S.Haryono

Rapid setting materials for rigid pavement repair are important and indispensable materials nowadays, especially for concrete repairs such as toll roads with heavy traffic. Some Manufacturers of construction chemicals have been producing the rapid setting materials for repairing of the toll road. However, the existing toll road repair materials have not shown good performance when applied in the field. This study modified micro concrete materials with the addition of PolycarboxylateEther (PCE) and Polypropylene Fiber (PPF) at the time of mixingof existing rapid setting materials. Then tested: flow test and setting time for 16, 20, 30, 40, 60 minutes, compressive strength and flexural strength tests at age 3 hours, 1 day, 7 days.The concrete micro material is applied directly in the field too. The result shows that micro concrete material is suitable for toll road repair. The addition of PCE and PPF, can increase the flexural strength andmodulus of elasticity, the material is not easily cracked due to the repetition of traffic loads. The use of micro concrete material has been proven to be used for the repair of toll roads with heavy traffic for the future.
13 17 Effect of added the Polycarboxylate Ether on Slump Retention and Compressive Strength of the High Performance Concrete Jonbi Jonbi, Resti Nur Arini, Basori Anwar, Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

iswellknownthatworkability of high performance concrete(HPC) isdependent on slump value of concrete mixture. Moreover,slump retention isthe most sensitive compared to a well known slump value becauseitrepresents the durability of concrete mixture for its applications in the field of civil engineering. This researchusedthe polycarboxylateether (PCE) to increaseslump value of concretemixture and thenverifiedthe effect of PCE onthe slumpretention and compressive strength ofdifferenthigh performance concretes.0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% of PCE wereaddedintoconcretemixtureto yieldaminimum compressive strength of f’c50 MPa. The slumpretention testswere performed at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 minuteswhilethe compressive strengthtestswere carried out at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days for everyconcretesample. The resultfindingsshowedthatthe optimal concrete performancecan be achieved by adding2% of PCE toreach at aslumpretention value of 45 minutes and acompressive strengthof53.84 MPa. Effect of PCE on the slump retention and compressive strength of the HPCsampleshas been verified to contribute an insight into the application of a proper designed workability ofHPC for considering the future of civil engineering industry.
14 18 Numerical modelling of dynamic stability of RCC dam Omer Mughieda, Kenan Hazirbaba, Khaldoon Bani-Hani, Wassim Daoud

Stability and stress analyses are the most important elements that require rigorous consideration in design of a dam structure. In the current research, dynamic structural stability of a roller-compacted-concrete (RCC) dam was performed. The RCC dam was modeled using finite elements method to investigate the stability against sliding and the structural stability of the body of the dam. A commercially available finite element software (SAP 2000) was used to analyze stresses in the body of the dam and foundation. A linear finite element dynamic analysis was performed in which linear plane strain isoperimetric four node elements was used for modeling the dam-foundation system. Response spectrum and time history methods were used with different earthquake loads to perform the dynamic analysis. The response spectrum of the 1995 Aquba earthquake and a representative elastic-spectrum with smooth plateau for both Operating Basis earthquake (OBE) and Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) were used in this study to carry out the dynamic stress analysis of AL-Mujib RCC Dam. The analysis was carried out assuming that no slip will occur at the interface between the dam and the foundation. The greatest tension was found to develop in the rock adjacent to the toe of the upstream slope. The factor of safety against sliding along the entire base of the dam was found to be greater than 1 (FS>1), for both loading conditions.
15 19 Stability evaluation of Sermo dam, Yogyakarta, using two components acceleration time histories causes by Java subduction earthquake scenarios Windu Partono, Undayani Cita Sari

Dam assessment due to a specific earthquake event is one of the most important approaches for dam evaluation. The assessments usually performed by conducting two different seismic loads model, spectra acceleration and acceleration time histories. The first model is implemented using seismic load information developed from national code. The second approach is implemented using earthquake scenarios from specific earthquake source by conducting acceleration time histories. Tim for Revision of Indonesian Seismic Maps 2010 and 2016 suggested that shallow crustal fault and subduction are two closest and dangerous seismic sources for Yogyakarta Province. This paper presents the evaluation of Sermo dam in terms of dam displacement and peak ground acceleration (PGA) due to Java subduction source earthquake scenarios. The evaluation was performed by conducting two component (North-South/NS and East-West/EW directions) acceleration time histories from subduction seismic sources. Due to incomplete data of Java subduction earthquake, all acceleration time histories used in this study were collected and modified from worldwide earthquake data bases. Based on the average displacement and PGA values it can be predicted that Sermo dam is strong enough to resist the earthquake with maximum magnitude 8.4 Mw and minimum epicentre distance approximately 160 Km causes by Java subduction source.
16 22 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia Muhammad Adi Ibrahim, Yusep Muslih Purwanan.a

Surakarta is one of cities in Indonesia with high density population and fast economic development. Surakarta is located in Java Island, one of provinces with high seismic risk, situated near subduction zone and some active faults. This makes the construction in this city should be designed by considering these seismic activities, so that the structures possess enough capacity to resist earthquake load. One of the way to reduce the impact caused by earthquake is estimating the seismic hazard and implementing the information based on the result in construction design. The result of this study will provide seismic information for designing earthquake resistance building especially for Surakarta city. Seismic hazard in this research is analyzed using total probability theory. The result indicates that the seismic risk potential of Surakarta is classified as level II (medium risk) and level III (high) based on PGA value for 500-years and 2500-years return period.
17 34 Numerical Study on Beam-Column Connection of Cantilever Precast Concrete Beam with Asymmetric Shape Under Static Load Hakas Prayuda, Robbi’al Rollyas Syandy, Bagus Soebandono, Taufiq Ilham Maulana, Martyana Dwi Cahyati

Cantilever beams are generally used in all infrastructures, including in precast concrete structures. In that type of structure, the asymmetric-section shape usage will be optimum and effective. However, in a precast concrete structures, it might be susceptible especially in beam-to-connection part due to its strength. In this research, damage mechanism of connection between cantilever beam and column in precast concrete will be analyzed. The asymmetric shape will be applied in cantilever beam. Three samples were made with length of 1500 mm equipped with six 10mm-diameter deformed rebar and stirrup with 6 mm-diameter plain rebar. The results show that each of three speciments has its own effectiveness based on stress, strain, displacement, load, and other related parameters.
18 37 Numerical Analysis on Stress and Displacement of Tapered Cantilever Castellated Steel Beam with Circular Openings Taufiq Ilham Maulana, Hakas Prayuda, Bagus Soebandono, Martyana Dwi Cahyati, Eva Hanifatu Zahra

Castellated steel beam is made from normal steel beam cut into half with certain pattern and re-jointed to increase its height. This action resulted many shapes of openings in its web, one of them is circular. Circular openings castellated beam can also be implemented with single fix supported structure, but if the uniform shape is used, it will reduce its effectiveness. In this paper, it will be discussed about the adoption of tapered shape on castellated beam with circular openings as cantilever structure. This study uses IWF section 150x75x5x7 and 200x100x5.5x8 with variations of openings diameter, openings space, and span length. The steel has yield strength of 400 MPa and the analysis runs with solid element of 10-node tetrahedron using finite element method, by observing von Mises stress and displacement. Free-licenced software such as LISAFEA 8.0 and FreeCAD are utilized for analysing and drawing solid element. The result shows that optimum height for IWF section for 150x75x5x7 is 230 mm and for 200x100x5.5x8 is 318 mm between span lengths of 2 m to 3.5 m. It can be concluded that each of span lengths has various optimum diameter and openings space to acquire the smallest stress and displacement.
19 39 A Parametric Study on The Behavior of Bagasse Ash–Calcium Carbide Residue Stabilized Soil John Tri Hatmoko, Hendra Suryadharma

A series of experimental programs such as unconfined compression tests, three-axial tests, compaction tests, and split tensile tests were undertaken to investigate the influence of compaction parameters on the behavior of bagasse ash - calcium carbide residue stabilized soil. Preliminary study was carried out on the soil with addition of 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% calcium carbide residue to establish lime fixation point (LFP), and it was obtained that LFP was 4%. Then an addition of 9% bagasse ash was given on the soil + 4% calcium carbide residue, cation exchanges and pozzolanic reactions were then investigated. The addition of calcium carbide residue on bagasse ash stabilized soil caused short term changes due to cation exchange reactions, including the increase in friction angle and cohesion on stabilized soil. In addition, due to short-term reaction, the maximum stiffness on three-axial tests occurred on the samples molded under its optimum moisture content (OMC), whereas the peak strength occurred on the samples molded on its OMC. After 28 days curing period, pozzolanic reactions improved significantly three-axial peak strength and stiffness of stabilized soil, the maximum three-axial shear strength and stiffness occurred on the samples prepared under its OMC.
20 40 Multisite daily precipitation simulation in Singapore Suroso Suroso, András Bárdossy

Stochastic precipitation simulation is of great importance for the design and operation of water infrastructures. The objective of this research is to develop a stochastic simulation method for daily precipitation. Daily precipitation generation needs special treatment because of many zero values appearing due to dry days. It is implemented for 26 rain gauge stations located in Singapore. Method of this research follows three steps. First, a hidden autoregressive (AR) model is fitted to time series data at each gauging station using a power transformation. Zero precipitation amounts are treated as censored values of the power-transformed Gaussian process. The hidden AR has four parameters, namely mean, autocorrelation, power transformation, and variance of error. Second, a conditional multivariate Gaussian distribution is fitted to residuals of the AR models and used to fill in censored values corresponding to errors of the AR at dry events. Third, stochastic simulations from the created spatial-temporal model are carried out. Single and multi-site statistical characteristics such as empirical distribution function, cross-correlation coefficient and entropy are used for evaluation of the model. The results of this research show that the developed model produces synthetic precipitation amounts having statistical characteristics very similar to the observed ones.
21 41 Evaluation of Hub-Spoke Airport Networks in Sumatra Island, Indonesia to increase Efficiency of Air Transportation Gito Sugiyanto, Purwanto Bekti Santosa, Jajang, Ari Fadli, Mina Yumei Santi

Kualanamu International Airport is the busiest airport in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. In 2015, serving 8 million passengers and 41.6 thousand tons of good for international and domestic flight. Hub-spoke networks is optimized when generaly have a transporting efficiency at 49-52% and providing of air service in wide geographic area and many destinations. The aim of this study is to analysis the hub-spoke airport networks based on the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI) to increase air transport efficiency in Sumatra Island, Indonesia. In this study, using data cargo production and couple’s flights from 10 airports in Sumatra Island for domestic flight routes pair and 6 airports for international flight routes pair. The results of the study show that route network in Sumatra Island in existing condition has not developed with the hub-spokes concept. Based on the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index analysis, produces 2-hubs for domestic flights and 1-hub (Kualanamu) for international flights. Kualanamu International Airport and Hang Nadim International Airport as a hub airport in Sumatra Island for domestic flight. The efficiency of air cargo transportation through the system (2 hubs and 8 spokes) generates the transport efficiency at 68.37%, this value is still far above the efficient range at 49-52%.
22 42 Application of Woven Waste tires Gabion Wall as Slope Reinforcement for Preventing Landslide in Laboratory Arwan Apriyono, Sumiyanto, Yanto, Bogie Arif Hidayat

This study presents the application of woven waste tires as slope reinforcement for preventing slope failure, reducing construction cost and minimizing environmental hazards associated with the increasingly large amount of waste tires in Indonesia. To this end, we performed experiments in laboratory using five stripe distance variations of woven tires – i.e. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 cm as rib of gabion wall. Five gabion wall samples sized 50 cm x 50 cm x 25 cm each were made. Each sample was fastened using one of these woven tires. Loading test was conducted on each gabion wall sample and the strength was determined from the maximum capacity before failure. The correlation between gabion wall strength and strip distance – boulder diameter ratio was used to infer the most effective model. The result suggests that the strip distance – boulder diameter ratio of 0.4 is optimum with corresponding strength value of 1718 kg.
23 43 Study of Geotechnical Aspect Base on GIS as Basic Design of Road Indrayani, Arfan Hasan, Andi Herius, Ahmad Miza

The determination of sustainable road traces is the first step in road planning. Geotechnical aspects such as soil type, soil texture, peat soil, and CBR value should be considered in the road planning so as to obtain the age of road services in accordance with the plan. At this time, GIS can be used in identifying the physical environmental conditions in the determination of road traces so that time and cost are more efficient. The suitability of the geotechnical aspects is determined using the scoring and weighting method. Where the score ranges for each attribute of a geotechnical aspect between 1 to 5. The 1 score is the most suitable attribute while the 5 score is the least suitable attribute. Furthermore, each geotechnical aspect is given a weights of 25% because every geotechnical aspect has the same level of importance. Spatial analysis of the weighting result is done by overlay method to obtain geotechnical aspect appropriateness in determining road traces. The analysis results show that the lowest weights on the result of the overlay of the map is 2.25 which indicates that most of the area in Banyuasin Regency is “quite suitable" to be chosen as the road traces, so special handling is needed when the road construction in the area.
24 44 Analysis of Travel Pattern and the Need to Develop Sustainable Transportation Infrastructure in Sarbagita Metropolitan Area Putu Alit Suthanaya

Denpasar city is the capital of Bali Province that has been developed into a metropolitan city. There has been an agglomeration of four regencies, namely Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan forming a Metropolitan Sarbagita area with population close to 2 million inhabitant. With increasing population and activity, travel patterns are increasing and scattered. The development of land use in the Sarbagita Metropolitan area occurred rapidly and can not be properly anticipated by the provision of adequate infrastructure. This study aims to examine the patterns of movement that occurs and projection for future condition as a basis for preparing the needs to develop a more sustainable transportation infrastructure. The data used is the origin-destination of people and goods and statistical data of population. The prediction method uses four-stages modeling with the help of Visum software and validated based on the average daily traffic (ADT) data. The results of the study indicated that traffic accumulation occurs on most arterial and collector roads especially around Denpasar with the degree of saturation exceeding 1. To anticipate future population and activities development, it is needed to develop mass public transport system, multi-mode system, ICT system and limit the ownership and use of private motor vehicles.
25 46 Bearing Capacity Analysis of Helical Pile Foundation on Peat Ferry Fatnanta, Andarsin Ongko

Peat is kind of soil with a very low bearing capacity and high compressibility. Generally, a building construction on peat was done by using wooden pile as the foundation. However, the length of wooden pile is sometimes limited and caused the friction strength between soil and wooden pile became inoptimal. In order to enhance the bearing capacity of foundation, the cross sectional area of foundation needs to be enlarged. One of the solutions for this problem is through helical piles. There are two methods to determine the helical pile`s bearing capacity, i.e. individual bearing and cylindrical shear method. In this paper, bearing capacity prediction was discussed. A foundation load test was thoroughly done by constant rate of penetration method. This test consisted of compression and tension test. The result was analyzed by individual bearing and cylindrical shear method and next to be compared each other. The result of analysis has shown that individual bearing method was more suitable in predicting helical pile`s bearing capacity since it produced the lowest error rate, with the magnitude of 21,31%.
26 47 Inverse distance weighting interpolated soil properties and their related landslide occurrences Purwanto B Santoso, Yanto, Arwan Apriyono, Rani Suryani

The cause of landslide can be categorized into three factors i.e. climate, topographic, and soil properties. In many cases, thematic maps of landslide hazard do not involve slope stability analysis to predict the region of potential landslide risk. Slope stability calculation is required to determine the factor of safety of a slope. Calculation of slope stability requires the soil properties, such as soil cohesion, internal friction angle and depth of hardrock. The soil properties obtained from field and laboratory investigation in western part of Central Java were interpolated using interpolation technique of Inverse Distance Weghting (IDW) to estimate the unknown soil properties in gridded area. In this research IDW optimum parameter was determined by validation toward the percent bias. It was found that IDW interpolation using higher weighting factor corresponds with higher percent bias in case of depth of hardrock and soil cohesion, while oppositely found in case of the internal friction angle. Validation to landslide incident in western part of Central Java Province shows that the majority of landslide incident occurs at depths of hardrock of 6 m - 8 m, at soil cohesions of 0.0 kg/cm2 – 0.2 kg/cm2, and at internal friction angles of 300 - 400.
27 49 Mechanical properties of concrete composed of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate Puput Risdanareni, M. Mirza Abdillah Pratama, Ike Maulidiyawati, Poppy Puspitasari n.a

This paper investigates the effect of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate as coarse aggregate substitution on mechanical properties of concrete. Lightweight aggregate (LWA) were produced using the cold bonded method and then was sintered at a temperature of 900°C. Alkali-activated system was applied as a binding agent of LWA. Fly ash was used as precursor while sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were employed as alkali activator. Three variations of LWA dosage were performed, which were 0%, 50%, and 100 % of the volume of coarse aggregate in the concrete mixture. Mechanical properties of concrete investigated in this research are compressive strength and split tensile strength. The result showed that the mechanical properties of the concrete slightly decrease along with the increased dosage of LWA in the mixture. However, employing sintered fly ash LWA is proven as an effective solution in reducing the concrete density without sacrificing the strength.
28 52 The Effect of Additional Aluminium to the Strength of Geopolymer Paste Aulia Rahman, Januarti Jaya Ekaputrin.a

Alternative cementitious materialshave been widely used because of the environmental issue of greenhouse gasses produced by potlandcement production. A possible solution is the green concrete made from fly ash based-geopolymer paste. The natural differences of Indonesian coal ash lead to various chemical content of fly ash. The chemical composition of alkali activated paste is also varied to cause differences in the strength of the paste. Silica to alumina ratio is indicated as the most influenced factor to geopolymer strength. The bond among silica-alumina preserves a compact microstructure resulted in the strength. This paper proposes Si/Al ratio between 1.5 until 2.0 by adding synthetic aluminium substance from some sources. Using natural aluminium substance from other fly ashes which contains excessive amount of Al2O3 was of the efforts. The result indicated that the addition of small amount of aluminium powder showed insignificant differences in geopolymer strength. The powder addition up to 4% of fly ash decreased the strength up to 60% of the original one. The methods of mixing indicated as the trigger of lower strength because geopolymerization occurs before the fly ash is reacted with alkaline activator.
29 55 The Effect of Cement Stabilization on the Strength of the Bawen’s Siltstone Edi Hartono, Sri Prabandiyani Retno Wardani, Agus Setyo Muntohar

Siltstonesis predominantly found along the Bawen toll-road. Siltstone is degradable soil due to weather session. The soil is susceptible to the drying and wetting and the changes in moisture content. Thus, Siltstone is problematic soils in its bearing capacity when served as a subgrade or subbase. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cement stabilization on the strength of Siltstone. The main laboratory test to evaluate the strength wereUnconfined Compression Strength (UCS)and California Bearing Ratio (CBR). The cement content were varied from 2 to 12 percent by weight of the dry soil. The soils were collected from the Ungaran – Bawen toll road. The specimens were tested after 7 days of moist-curing in controlled temperature room of 25oC. The CBR test was performed after soaking under water for four days to observe the swelling. The results show that the mudstones were less swelling after soaking. Cement stabilizedsiltstone increased the CBR value and the UCS significantly. The addition of optimum cement content for siltstonestabilization was about 7 to 10 percent.
30 56 Shear-bond behavior of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rods and sheets Aylie Han, Bundara S. Gan, Agung Budipriyanto

The use of external reinforcement has gainedan increasingly major position due to the adjustment in earthquake standards, mandating a significant improvement in the section’s moment capacity. Studies on the behavior and enhancement contributed by FRP sheets demonstrated that its effectiveness was a direct function of the shear-bond strength. A prominent contributing factor was the response of the interface between the sheets and the epoxy resin, and the interface between the epoxy resin to the concrete surface. Recently, FRP rods were produced. These rods which are 8 and 10 millimeters in diameter offer ease in use, and simplicity in the application procedure. This study looked into the shear-bond behavior of FRP rodsas compared to sheets. Direct tensile stresses were applied to test the shear-bond between the sheets and rods, attached to a 35 MPa concrete surface. The failure behavior of the bond was also monitored. Additionally, the effectiveness of the embedded depth of the FRP rods relative to the concrete surfacewas also analyzed.
31 58 Analysis of Steel Reinforced Functionally Graded Concrete Beam Cross Sections Shota Kiryu, Ay Lie Han, Ilham Nurhuda, Buntara S. Gan

Owing to continuously changing strength moduli properties, the functionally graded concrete (FGC) have remarkable advantages over the traditional homogeneous concrete materials regarding cement optimization. Some researchers have studied mechanical behaviors and production methodologies. Problems arise as to how to incorporate the effects of the non-homogeneous concrete strengths material in the analysis for design. For a steel Reinforced Functionally Graded Concrete (RFGC) beam structure, the associated boundary conditions at both ends have to be at the neutral axis position after the occurrence of the presumed cracks. Because the neutral axis is no longer at the mid-plane of the beam cross-section, an iterative procedure has to be implemented. The procedure is somewhat complicated since the strength of the beam cross section has to be integrated due to the non-homogeneity in concrete strengths. This paper proposes an analytical procedure that is very straightforward and simple in concept, but yet accurate in designing the steel reinforced functionally graded concrete beam cross-sections.
32 63 The Maintenance Priority for Construction Reliability and Sustainability in Ampel Mosque Surabaya Agung Sedayu

The Ampel Mosque was founded in 1421 by Raden Mohammad Ali Rahmatullah (Sunan Ampel). Ampel mousqe is located in Ampel Village, Semampir District, Surabaya City, East Java, Indonesia. The Ampel Mosque was built in the style of ancient Javanese architecture and the nuances of Arabian Islamic, has now experienced an expansion of the mosque building and the arrangement of Sunan Ampel's tomb area. This mosque is still influenced by the aculturization of local culture (local wisdom) and Hindu-Buddhism through the building architecture. This study aims to determine the priority of maintaining the reliability of sustainable construction of Ampel Mosque. The method used is Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD). The research results obtained research variables with the highest score level requirement is Ease and affordability in maintenance (Maintainability) of construction components. The variable that the highest priority to be improved is Non-hazardous building materials. The highest target is ensure the design and configuration of non-hazardous construction systems. The variables can be considered in repair and improve the Ampel Mosque maintenance by management institution.
33 64 The Influence of Molarity Variations to the Mechanical Behaviour of Geopolymer Concrete Purwanto, Aylie Han, Nuroji, Januarti Jaya Ekaputrin.a

Research on geopolymer concrete has seen a new light in the analyses and experiments for special topics in the field of their mechanical properties.Among the most important are studies of geopolymer concrete subjected to confinement and bond. Regardingthe basic material behavior, researchof material proportions formulations, mix design formulas and inventions towards the development of a high-performance geopolymer concrete, were conducted. The latest looked into the effects of molar activator concentrations to the 28 days compression strength, and the strength development as a function of concrete age for geopolymer concretes. The specimens were 150 by 300-millimeter cylinders tested in uniaxial compression. The molarity variations were set at 6, 8, and 10 molars. The geopolymer concrete samples were compared to conventional concrete specimens, having the exact same volumetric material proportions. The cement was replaced with fly ash, and the water by the activator. The aggregate content was taken as a constant. The concrete strength as a function of molar increase followed a parabolic, convex pattern, suggesting that a maximum value exists. The strength development of all geopolymer concretes had a slower rate when compared to conventional concrete.
34 65 The Concept of Lomaya And Pilohayanga Weir Rehabilitation Based On Technical And Economic Aspects Ninik Khorida, Mamok Suprapto, Syafi’i

Lomaya and Pilohayanga Weirs are located in Limboto-Bone-Bolango River, Bone Bolango District, and Gorontalo Province. Pilohayanga Weir is located + 1,500meters downstream of Lomaya Weir, with 1,045 hectares of irrigation services area and also serves as a supplier of raw water requirements. The damage occurred in Pilohayanga Weir resulted in its decreasing function. The damage causes unfulfilled irrigation and raw water needs. Meanwhile, Lomaya Weir has 3,148 hectares of irrigation services area.The aim of this research is to find the optimal solution of several alternative design concepts to fulfill Pilohayanga Weir's water needs by supplying water from Lomaya Weir considering the technical aspects of hydroulis and economy, so the exact solution required is by the addition of several designs, such as: a) making of a new intake area in the right side; b) the addition channel flushing sediment of Lomaya Weir; c) making of sand trap; and d) making of a carrier channel to Pilohayanga Irrigation Area.
35 67 Flexural Performance of HPFRC Plates using PPC and Variation of Steel Fiber Composition Krisnamurti, Agoes Soehardjono, Achfas Zacoeb, Ari Wibowo

High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) is widely used in infrastructure applications due to its mechanical properties such as fracture toughness, ductility, durability, control of crack width, plate thickness reduction and increased permissible connection spacing compared to normal concrete. However, there are still doubts about the strategy to develop the concrete technology to meet its sustainability aspects in the construction process. This study aims to investigate the improvement of flexural performance on HPFRC plates that utilize Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) with various compositions of steel fiber. This research use PPC, Lumajang sand,gravel from Malang area, water, silica fume, superplasticizer, and steel fiber. Tests were performed on 1600 mm x 900 mm x 80 mm HPFRC plates. Average HPFRC compressive strength is 59.59 MPa.The splitting tensile strength is 3.54 MPa. Steel fiber vary from 0.2% to 1.0% of HPFRC plates volume. Test performed with the three-point bending method. The observation was made to the load capacity, deflection and the crack pattern of HPFRC plates.The study shows that the optimum bending strength failure of the HPFRC plate is obtained when steel fiber composition is about 0.8% with an external load value of 31.76 kN and a deflection of 14.99 mm.
36 73 Slant shear strength of fibre reinforced polyvinyl acetat (PVA) modified mortar Stefanus Kristiawan, Bambang Santosa, Edy Purwanto, Rachmad A Caesar

Strengthening of reinforced concrete elements can be carried out using a variety of materials and techniques. One of such materials is a textile reinforced concrete (TRC). This material consists of matrix, usually made of mortar, and textile as a reinforcement. This study aims to produce mortar that meets the characteristic of TRC matrix with respect to an adequate bond strength. The type of mortar developed in this study was fibre reinforced polyvinyl acetate (PVA) modified mortar. The bond strengths of this material to the parent concrete were tested by slant shear method. The results indicate that the amount of PVA content affects the magnitude of bond strength. The higher the PVA content, the higher the bond strength. The results also confirm that the relationship between the bond strengths and their corresponding compressive strengths tends to be linear.
37 74 Effect of monotonic lateral load on the performance of reinforced graded concrete column, an experimental study M. Mirza Abdillah Pratama, B. Sri Umniati, Gista Prasiwi, Han Ay Lie, Buntara Sthenly Gan, Puput Risdanareni, Zhabrinna Zhabrinna

Gradation pattern in strength on concrete columns is ineluctable due to the presence of the static and dynamic segregation. Effect of concrete uniformity on columns subjected to monotonic lateral load is investigated experimentally in this study. Reinforced concrete columns with cross-sectional dimensions of 150 x 150 mm and 1000 mm height are prepared as the graded concrete column (GCC) specimen and the controlling specimen. The columns are designed with the reinforcement ratio equals to 1%. Two concrete mixes with the strength of 20 MPa and 30 MPa are cast in moulds with gradual compaction procedure to create a good strength transition throughout the specimens’ height. The resulting lateral deformation and resisting load are utilized for further analysis. The analyses show that the GCC exhibits the lower peak load and lateral deformation than the control specimen, and a distinct failure mode is observed. The GCC also shows a more brittle behaviour in the post-peak region.
38 76 Expansive Soil Improvement of Glagahagung Village, Purwoharjo Sub-district, Banyuwangi District, which is chemically stabilized. Paksitya Purnama Putra, Diah Ayu Paramiswari, Abdullah Ilham, M. Farid Ma’ruf

Expansive soil is easily found at Purwoharjo, a sub district of Banyuwangi. Swelling and shrinkage behaviour of the soil are usually called by local community as a “moving soil” phenomenon. It causes crack problem on number of buildings at that area. Various methods of expansive soil stabilization are available. This work intends to compare stabilization using wood charcoal powder and salt. The stabilizer materials are mixed with the soils under different proportion. Volume weight, index properties and dry density are parameters to be investigated during the stabilization process. The results show that salt stabilized expansive soil better than wood charcoal powder. 15% proportion of salt to soils weight increases the density about 20%. Meanwhile, the stabilized soil is change to low plasticity silt (ML) from previously high plasticity soil (CH) of the original one.
39 79 Stress-strain response of high-volume fly ash self-compacting concrete (HVFA-SCC) under uniaxial loading and its effect on the reinforced HVFA-SCC nominal strength Stefanus Kristiawan, Sunarmasto, Agus S Budi, Desi C Kurniawati

Sustainability has become a major issue affecting the activities of concrete industries around the globe. In the development of concrete technology, sustainability may be achieved by optimizing concrete mix design, improving the durability of concrete, using materials with less impact to the environment, etc. One of such approaches is by the use of waste material such as fly ash to partially substitute cement. An inclusion of high volume fly ash (HVFA) is possible in the development of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Utilization of this type of concrete (termed as High-Volume Fly Ash- Self Compacting Concrete/HVFA – SCC) as a reinforced concrete structural element requires a rational analysis to accommodate the mechanical characteristics of HVFA-SCC. This study aims to investigate and analyze the mechanical characteristics of HVFA-SCC by examining the experimentally obtained complete stress-strain behavior of this concrete. The results indicate that the compression stress-strain curve of HVFA-SCC is diverse to that of normal concrete (NC) in which the average area under the curve represents 64% to that of NC. Consequently, the equivalent rectangular compression stress for calculating the nominal flexural strength of reinforced HVFA-SCC section should be modified by a factor of 0.64. Based on this theoretical analysis, a close agreement exists between the predicted nominal flexural strength and the experimental result.
40 81 Assessment of Magetan Regency’s Road Performance Based on Pavement and off Pavement Components Joko Tri Haryanta, Mamok Suprapto, Syafi’i

In term of its operation, road declines in conditions due to its increasing age. Road consists of pavement and off pavement components. Only road pavement is commonly exposed to road management, while its accompanying road components are neglected even though they contribute to the road performance. Therefore, the assessment of road pavement and road components is perceived to be necessary for obtaining the overall road performance. The purpose of this study is to know the performance of the road and the appropriate handling recommendations, this research was done to 16 road sections in Magetan Regency, East Java Province with the total length of 85.60 km. It was aided with Kabupaten Road Management System (KRMS) Software to investigate the road performance. for weighting of road components using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and determining priority handling using ANP (Analysis Network Proces) with Super Decision software. The observation of road pavement conditions and road components is done with the help of the camera. The result of the research shows that 16 Straight Line Diagram states that all road segments are in good condition and 16 Strip Map Diagram with routine maintenance recommendation on all road segments. The first priority is the Genengan-Lembeyan road segment, the second priority of the Tamanarum-Lembeyan road, and the third priority of the Karangsono-Teguhan road segment.
41 82 Modulus elasticity of the graded concrete, a preliminary research M. Mirza Abdillah Pratama, B. Sri Umniati, Bunga Arumsari Mutiara Wulandari, Han Ay Lie, Buntara Sthenly Gan, Zhabrinna Zhabrinna

The elastic modulus of materials plays a role in determining the stiffness of a structural element and its level of serviceability. Previous research indicates that the concrete modulus of elasticity could be improved by combining 2 (two) concrete mixes using a gradual compacting method. In this study, the effect of different concrete strength combination to the resulting modulus of elasticity is examined. Three types of concrete mixes with the strength of 30 MPa; 40 MPa; and 50 MPa are prepared. The graded concrete is moulded in cylindrical concrete casts (150 mm x 300 mm) with the following casting configurations: 30-40 MPa; 30-50 MPa; and 40-50 MPa. The static modulus of elasticity test is performed at age of 28 days using compressometers in accordance to ASTM C469. The test results show that the modulus of elasticity of the graded concrete is proportionally influenced by the stiffness of the higher and the lower concrete material. Additionally, the resulting compressive strength of the graded concrete is determined by the lower concrete strength.
42 88 Peak Ground Acceleration at Surface for Mataram City with a Return Period of 2500 Years using Probabilistic Rian Mahendra Taruna, Vrieslend Haris Banyunegoro, Gatut Daniarsyad

Lombok region especially Mataram city is situated in a very active seismic zone because of the existence of subduction zones and Flores back arc thrust. Hence, peak ground acceleration (PGA) at surface is necessary for seismic design regulation referring to SNI 1726:2012. In this research we conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to estimate PGA at bedrock with probability of exceedance 2% in 50 years corresponding to the return period of 2500 years. These results then multiplied by amplification factor referred from shear wave velocity at 30 m depth (Vs30) and microtremor method. Result of the analysis may describe seismic hazard in Mataram city which is important for building codes.
43 89 Microscopic Investigation on Concrete Cured Internally by Using Porous Ceramic Roof-tile Waste Aggregate Azusa Shigeta, Yuko Ogawa, Kenji Kawain.a

Porous ceramic roof-tile waste aggregate (PCA), which is a recycled material and has a high water absorption, is an effective internal curing material for concrete. Part of aggregate is replaced with saturated internal curing material to supply internal water into cement paste continuously. Internal water is effective to promote the hydration of cement paste, especially in concrete with a low water to cement ratio (W/C) because external curing water cannot easily reach inside of concrete. It has been reported that PCA leads to the increase in compressive strength, the reduction of autogenous shrinkage and improvement of shear strength. However, the effects of PCA in previous researches are different in the experimental conditions and have not been evaluated sufficiently. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of internal water supplied from PCA microscopically. In the experimental program, the compressive strength test was conducted for 6 types of concrete with W/C of 0.35. The microhardness around aggregate in concrete were also measured to investigate the extent of influence by the internal water supply. The results showed the possibility that microhardness of ITZ around PCA is improved by internal curing water supply and the compressive strength of concrete is also improved by using PCA.
44 92 Effect of co-existing ions on lead leaching behaviour from hardened cement paste Takumi Nishiwaki, Shaojun Zhou, Masaharu Yamasaki, Yuko Ogawa, Kenji Kawai

Recently, a recycling-oriented society is required to solve environmental issues. In the concrete field, the use of industrial wastes for concrete materials is expected. However, these wastes may contain hazardous heavy metals which can be dangerous. It is well known that cement paste has the ability to fix heavy metal ions, whereas it is also found that absorbed heavy metal ions can easily leach from cement pastes in the presence of CaCl2 solution. The present study aims to investigate the leaching behaviours of lead from hardened cement pastes in various chloride solutions by tank leaching tests. Water to cement ratios of the cement paste specimens were 0.40 and 0.55. Lead was added to cement pastes at 1 mass% of cement. Each chloride solution for the tank leaching test had three kinds of concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20%). After the tank leaching tests, chemical changes of specimens were analysed to discuss the effect of co-existing ions in the solutions. The results indicate that the cumulative lead leaching amount is related to the types of chloride solution as well as the concentrations of the solutions. Besides, it was confirmed that the leaching amount of lead in CaCl2 solution was much higher than that in other solutions.
45 95 Intelligent BIM Record Model for Effective Asset Management of Constructed Facility Md. Aslam Hossain, Haron Ahmad Tarmizin.a

Asset management is a continuous process that runs throughout the lifecycle of a constructed facility. Current practice of asset management is paper-based consisting manual inspection and proves to be time consuming, tedious, and prone to humane error. Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been found to be an emerging technology and core of information management for design, construction, operation and maintenance process in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector. Though the usefulness of BIM has been greatly realized in AEC industry, its use for operation and maintenance, particularly in asset management is still in its infancy. This research describes a framework of intelligent BIM record model that can capture all the assets in BIM during the construction of a building facility. All the information necessary for operation and maintenance along with location would be stored in a database integrating with BIM model. The database library can be interrogated with BIM and serve as a repository of asset management for the built facility. The BIM record model would help to take informed decision regarding operation, maintenance, servicing, repair and replacement of an asset and hence saving labour-intensive asset inventory, saving time and money and prevent the wastage of unnecessary tools acquisition.
46 96 Application of NDT Apparatus for Possible Use as Structural Health Monitoring of Concrete Building in the Field Akmaluddin Akmaluddin, Ni Nyoman Kencanawati, Ahmad Gazi Paedullah

Condition assessment of the reinforced concrete building structure can be conducted accurately when the components of the building structure data are available. Otherwise, data must be developed through testing directly in the field. To do so without any distracting on the existing building structures then Non-Destructive Test method (NDT) is adopted. This study aims to develop a model for interpreting the residual strength of concrete structures in the field. Nine cylinders specimen with a diameter of 150 mm and height of 300 mm and 27 cubes specimen of 200x200x200 mm were prepared. Nine reinforced concrete beams specimen of 100x150x1100 mm were also prepared to represent a component of the reinforced concrete structure. In the early stages, both Hammer and UPV apparatuses were applied to cylinders and cubes specimen, afterward, the cylinder strength obtained was converted to the cube strength. After a correlation between those specimens was obtained, then the NDT equipment was applied only to the cube specimens. In the final stages, the interpretation results based on compression test were compared with the results obtained from flexural test represented by the beam specimens. Results concluded that the value of pulse velocity is directly proportional to the load and inversely proportional to the residual strength. The concrete structure with residual strength more than 60% is considered healthy or a structural in “good” condition. The concrete structure is also healthy when the v measured gives the value of 3.5 and above. This value is acceptable as lies within the range v given in the reference of 3.5 to 4.5.
47 100 The Effect of Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) with Surface Treatment on Concrete Mechanical Properties Anggun Tri Atmajayanti, Chrisyanto Daniel Saragih G, Yanuar Haryanto

This paper discusses the recycling system for concrete due to environmental and resource preservation issues. Construction and demolition wastes arethe majorproblems faced at the construction site. One feasible solution to overcome this problem is by utilizing construction and demolitionwastes as therecycled coarse aggregate (RCA). This study aims atobservingthe concrete mechanical properties using the RCA with surface treatment. The acrylic-based material wasused to treat the surface of RCA by spraying it from two sides. It was found that the recycled aggregate with surface treatment canreduce the water absorption from 7.96% to 2.96%. In addition, the concrete using RCA with surface treatment can improve the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength.

There are two methods of handling the road assessment, ie, visually and using tools. Visual assessment can use the PCI (Pavement Condition Index), while the assessment using the tool can use Roadroid, the tool to obtain the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) with a cheaper and effective cost. Functional assessment of roads in the field more use of visual methods. The method is very influential by the subjectivity of surveyors. Therefore the assessment of the visual method is correlated with the assessment method with the tools, in order to reduce the subjectivity of the road assessment. The research location used as research object is Magetan District Road consisting of 5 road segments. The results obtained, road assessment using PCI method with Very Good condition, and IRI Roadroid with Medium conditions. There is a negative (r) correlation between PCI and IRI Roadroid valued at -0.23. The negative correlation shows that both judgments reversed. Comparison of PCI assessment with IRI Roadroid has a low correlation value and with t-test yields no comparison of correlation. The result is because the PCI and IRI assessment equally assess the pavement, but using different methods.
49 104 Development of Self-compacting Fibre Reinforced Structural Mortar for Concrete Repair E. I. Sahari, A. B. M. A. Kaish, N. L. Fongn.a

Self-compacting fibre reinforced mortar (FRM) is required for structural concrete repair using cementitious composites. In this study, high-strength self-compacting FRM is developed using high volume (50% by weight of cement) blended pozzolans and low-cost nylon fibre. Experimental results showed promising results in terms of strength. FRM with 2% nylon fibre was achieved maximum strength, which is as high as 91.32 MPa in 28 days. Incorporation of nylon fibre also helped to bridge the crack and thus increase the tensile properties of mortar. Therefore, this type of FRM can be utilised for concrete repair.
50 105 Correlation Analysis between Speed Bumps Dimensions and Motorcycle Speed in Residential Area RA Dinasty Purnomo A, Dewi Handayani, Syafi’i

Speed bumps have been installed by the community on the streets of Surakarta city residential area in various sizes to reduce the vehicles speed that passing through the street in order to protect the safety of citizens. This paper will analyse the correlation between the speed bumps dimensions and the vehicles speed that occurs in the field. This research was conducted by taking the samples of some street of residential area in Surakarta by observing the descrease of effective speed at a distance of 8 meters before the point of speed bumps.The independent variables of this study is the dimension of the width and height of speed bumps (centimeter) and the dependent variable is speed (km/h). Data were analyzed using the regression equation. The results showed that the high of speed bumps isthe most influence factor todecrease speed in the area before the speed bumps.
51 108 Microstructure and mechanical properties of FA/GGBS-based geopolymer Apriany Saludung, Yuko Ogawa, Kenji Kawai

This study presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of geopolymer paste made from low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) through alkalination. The use of GGBS and FA is not only for sustainable construction but also for reducing the emission of CO2 due to the use of Portland cement. Different replacement ratios of GGBS to FA were used to determine the effect of GGBS presented to the compressive strength of geopolymer specimens. The alkaline activator solution used is combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 14 M and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Compressive strength test on cylindrical specimens (50 mm x 100 mm) at the ages of 7, 14, and 28 days was carried out. The results showed that the compressive strength increased with the increase of GGBS in the mixes (up to 100 MPa). Moreover, SEM-EDS, XRD, and TG-DTA characterization methods were conducted to investigate the microstructure, phase composition, and thermal stability of geopolymer specimens respectively.
52 114 The study of ultrasonic pulse velocity on plain and reinforced damaged concrete Ni Nyoman Kencanawati, Akmaluddin, Buan Anshari, Ahmad Gazi Paedullah, Mitsuhiro Shigeishi

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test is often applied to determine the quality of concrete structures. It is well known that there are several factors which can influence the reading of ultrasonic velocity in concrete. One of the factors is the presence of steel reinforcement. Therefore, this paper is intended to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity propagation either in plain or reinforced damaged concrete. The study on sound concrete is also provided as comparison. Three mixes of concrete were provided, with 25 MPa, 35 MPa, and 45 MPa target compressive strength. The specimens were 200x200x200 mm cube concrete specimens and 100x150x1100 mm reinforced concrete beam specimens. Each specimen was examined for velocity readings in sound and damageconcrete (25% and 50% of maximum load). In all concrete grades of both plain and reinforced concrete, the ultrasonic velocity decreases as the damage level increase. During intact condition, the velocity of reinforced concrete is higher around 4.5% than that of plain concrete. However, damaged reinforced concrete poses lower velocity than that the plain damaged one. Furthermore, a new equation for predicting ultrasonic pulse velocity in reinforced concrete is proposed.
53 115 PRIORITY DEVELOPMENT OF SMALLDAM IN WONOGIRI REGENCY Fisnu Yudha Pramono, Yunitta Chandra Sari, Suripin

The province of Central Java often experiences floods during the rainy season and drought in the dry season. For that the governor of Central Java in coordination with the central government launched a program to build 1000 small-dams. They are proposed to reduce flood as well as drought, by storing water during rainy season and using during dry season. In order to support the program, BBWS Bengawan Solo participated to build some small-dams in Solo basin watershed. To realize the plan needs to be preceded by a study to determine the locations of potential and most needy small-dams. the paper aims to identify potential small-dams in the Solo River Basin, particularly in the Wonogiri District, and to determine priorities for the sequence of development.The potential of the small-dams roughly derived from public information, topographic maps, and ground surveys. Initially, based on public information and local government officials, 39 locations of small-dams were obtained. After analyzing the topographic map and ground checking, the potential locations are 13 sites. From the 13 locations is then further conducted in-depth study to determine the priority of its development. Five small-dams will be selected as the first priority. Priority is determined based on multiple criteria, which consists of technical criteria (topography, geology, hydrology) and non-technical criteria (drought, economy, social and environment). Assessment method based on the scoring system on all criteria. The result found that the five most potential small-dams inWonogiri District are Glimbung, Gompyong, Wungu, Weru, and Waru
54 116 Surakarta City Drainage System Fisnu Yudha Pramono, Yunitta Chandra Sari, Suripinn.a

Surakarta City is a lowland located in the basin of the Lawu and Merapi mountains and cleaved by Solo River. During flood conditions, the water in the Solo River is higher than the ground level around the river channel. As a result rainwater from the city could not flow by gravity to Solo River. The existing drainage system has not been able to free the city of Surakarta from inundation. Some parts of the city are still often inundated during heavy rainfall. This this paper is aimed to evaluate the existing drainage system, and formulate a more suitable drainage system for the City of Surakarta. Hydrologic and hydraulic modellings were used to evaluate as well as to develop the most suitable drainage system in Surakarta City. Number and area of inundation were used as criterias to decide the suitable drainage system. The results found that the existing drainage system is divided into four sub-systems, i.e. Kali Anyar sub-system, Kali Pepe Hilir sub-system, Kali Boro sub-system, and Kali Tanggul sub-system. Inundation is mainly caused by the backwater effects from Solo River, degraded capacity of the system, and the overtopping of Kali Anyar and Kali Tanggul/Boro. Based on the actual problems and by maximizing exsisting drainage system infrastructure, the most suitable drainage system of Surakarta City is a combination between flood way system and polder system. Kali Anyar and Kali Tanggul are used as flood way that discharge flood water from upstream directly to Solo River by gravity. The area between Kali Pepe Hilir and Kali Boro is served by polder system. The boundary between the flood way system and the polder system is Kleco Weir at Kali Tanggul connects to the confluence of Kali Pepe Hulu and Kali Gajah Putih. The polder system is equipped with ponds and pump station.
55 118 Temporal variations of bed load transport rate and the grain size distribution of non-uniform size sediment during a constant flow rates Yusron Saadi, Ida Bagus Giri Putra, Agus Suroso

Bedload transport rate at a point in both laboratory and field measurement vary with time, from almost zero to several folds of the mean rate. Hence the need to carry out point measurements over sufficiently long sampling period is very important to cover inconsistency in transport rate during a short period of observation. In this experiments the bedload were collected at a slot type sediment trap with ten minutes intervals throughout the tests. The aim was to examine the behaviour of mixed grain size sediment transportation during constant flowrates. Two hydrographs were applied to quantify the changes in transport mode caused by an increase in time length as the mixtures were continuously exposed by the flow. It shows that the intense bed degradation process occurred within three hours of the tests as indicated by almost identical rates of bedload transport during this period and the diminishing rate in the remaining hours. This reflects that a stable bed was achieved after three hours in which the armouring process was believed to take place. The grain size distribution suggests that the proportion of fine mode was relatively stable and the modal grain size of this mode experienced a similar pattern throughout the tests whilst the coarse mode was inconsistent and varied periodically.
56 121 Analytical Study on Creep Shear Failures of RC Slender Beams Without Web Reinforcement Halwan Alfisa Saifullah, Kenichiro Nakarai, Nobuhiro Chijiwa, Koichi Maekawan.a

Sustained load problems, which can cause excessive deformation and severe damage to concrete structures, have been considered in current worldwide design codes by applying reduction factors on the compressive and tensile strength of concrete. A reduction factor in the shear design may also be required due to the decrease of shear-transfer action corresponding to the increases of the shear cracks opening. However, only a few studies are examining the effect of creep on shear performance of concrete structures, and the results are still inconclusive. As a complement to the previous experimental works, this study aims at investigating the effect of loading rate on the shear capacity of RC slender beam by non-linear finite element (FE) analysis. A space-averaged constitutive model with the fixed multi-directional cracks was employed in the simulation of diagonal shear failure. The present study analytically examines the time-dependent effects on the beams under different loading rates until the delayed failure and compares the results with the previous experimental ones.
57 124 Development of Quality Management System in Maintenance and Monitoring Process of Repair Work Risk-Based in Government Building Yusuf Latief, Rossy Armyn Machfudiyanto, Budi Susilo Soepandji, Khairina, Riany Aldesty

Buildings describe social and economic aspects in an environment, its provide shelter, space and facilities for human activities. But the implementation of a good maintenance system is not visible in some of the current government buildings in Indonesia. Government buildings require maintenance to extend the life of the building so that the services to the community can be indirectly met. The budget is issued annually by the government to maintain the building, but there is no Quality Management System that can be the basis in the maintenance of government buildings. This study aims to develop a Quality Management System in maintenance and monitoring process of repair work in Government Building. Research methods used in this research are Delphi method and risk questionnaire survey. The risks found in each activity are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively, resulting in the highest risk to be response. The result in this research is the risk based quality management system in maintenance and monitoring process of repair work that can be applied to improve the performance in government building environment.
58 126 BIM Adoption towards the Sustainability of Construction Industry in Indonesia Zhabrinna, M. Mirza Abdillah Pratama, Muhammad Yusuf, Richard J. Daviesn.a

The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is known as one of the prominent sectors to contribute economic stability in Indonesia. On the other hand, this sector is also responsible for environmental impact in the country. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a key innovative technology enabling advanced management within the construction and civil engineering industries and facilitating improvements in sustainability and asset management across the globe. BIM enables the achievement of three sustainable dimensions which are known as Triple Bottom Line (TBL). However, to enable construction industry in Indonesia to expand and adopt this new engineering technology,the scarcity of the experts in BIM remains to be a barrier to initiate the movement from traditional management to BIM. From 40 respondents participated in this study, there are only 2 respondents stated their competence in BIM. However, the awareness rate of Indonesian engineers about BIM is actually quite good with 67.5% of respondents have recognised BIM, although mostly with limited or basic knowledge. This research alsodefines BIM impact to sustainability aspect in construction.
59 133 Strength development of cement-treated sand using different cement types cured at different temperatures Lahn Si Ho, Kenichiro Nakarai, Kenta Eguchi, Takashi Sasaki, Minoru Morioka

This study aimed at investigating strength development of cement-treated sand using different cement types (ordinary Portland cement (OPC), high early strength Portland cement (HPC), and moderate heat Portland cement (MPC)) cured at different temperatures. The cement-treated sand specimens were prepared with 8% of cement content and cured under sealed conditions at 20oC and 40oC, and the mortar specimens were also prepared for reference. The results showed that the compressive strength of cement-treated sand increased in order of MPC, OPC, and HPC under high curing temperature. It was interesting that the compressive strength of the specimens using HPC was much larger than that of the specimen using OPC and MPC under 20oC due to the larger in the amount of chemically bound water. Besides, it was revealed that under high curing temperature, the pozzolanic reaction was accelerated in the cement-treated sand; this may be caused by the high proportions of sand in the mixtures.
60 134 Evaluation of watershed carrying capacity for watershed management (a case study on Bodri Watershed, Central Java, Indonesia) Ignatius Sriyana

Excessive land use without any concern towards land and water conservation code of conduct has a great potential to cause inevitable erosion and sedimentation, flood, drought, and decrease in vegetation coverage and accelerated land degradation, leading to change in watershed carrying capacity. This study aimed at evaluating the watershed classification dealing with its carrying capacity as a planning fundamental in the watershed management. During the research, the author performed field survey, questioner dissemination, and laboratory test for suspended sediment quality. Data collected during the observation were subject to further analysis under five predetermined criteria. The study found that the Bodri Watershed carrying capacity was at 96.7, covering percentage of critical land, percentage of vegetation coverage, erosion index scored 10, respectively. The classification for Bodri Watershed according to carrying capacity was considered moderate and classified as “to be improved” instead of “to be maintained”.
61 138 Application of Deflection Bowl Parameters for Assessing Different Structures of Road Pavement Bagus Hario Setiadji

To date, non-destruction testing (NDT) method is the most popular method to assess the condition of road pavement. Among all evaluation procedure of NDT method, load-deflection back-calculation analysis is one that developed widely to understand the structural behavior of the road pavement. On one side, the use of this analysis has a great benefit to present the layer characteristic accurately. However, the analysis requires specialist expertise. To overcome this, deflection bowl parameter application could become one alternative. The parameters are very easy to use; however, the intention of the parameters so far is only as an indication of the condition of the structural layer of the road pavement. It makes that the parameters have to be used with careful consideration. In this study, the parameters were evaluated to see the optimal usage of the parameters against different structures of road pavements. The results showed that a simplification of the number of parameters and reformulation of the parameters were required by taking into account the ease use in practice, the accuracy of subgrade modulus determination and the possibility to evaluate of pavement structure with layer number less than four.
62 140 Study of Inertia Weight Parameter for Boundary Element Inverse Analysis to Detect RC Corrosion Syarizal Fonna, Gunawarman, Syifaul Huzni

This research studies the effect of an inconstant inertia weight (W) parameter on boundary element inverse analysis (BEIA) to detect the corrosion of reinforcing steel/rebar in concrete. The boundary element method (BEM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) were used in developing BEIA. Several measured electrical potential data from half-cell potential measurements were taken as a reference when performing BEIA. Numerical simulation of reinforced concrete with single corrosion showed that the use of inconstant W with Wup = 0.5 and Wlow ? 0.5 did not affect the performance of BEIA in corrosion detection. It was similar to the performance of BEIA using a constant W in a previous study (0.25 ? W ? 0.5). However, the corrosion can still be detected with acceptable accuracy; that is, an error of less than 5%. Hence, further research is needed to extend the study with Wup > 0.5 for an inconstant W.
63 142 Influence of Shape Modification and Stirrups On the Axial Capacity of Concrete Columns Ida Bagus Rai Widiarsa, Ida Bagus Dharma Giri

Columns as an important element of building structures support loads that work on slabs and beams and deliver the loads to the foundation. Concrete columns can experience strength degradation due to some reasons such as less concrete strength than designed due to construction error or environmental damage. To restore the ability of the columns in supporting design loads, rehabilitation or retrofitting methods with steel plate or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are generally applied. This method is effective if the shape of the column is rounded. However, the shape of the column in the field is commonly rectangle or square. Moreover, retrofitting using FRP is very expensive. Based on this background, this study examined the effect of shape modification and stirrup on the axial capacity of concrete column. A total of 12 specimens of concrete column were cast and tested. The specimens were grouped into 4, in term of variation in shape and stirrup spacing. The experimental results showed that the shape modification increased the axial capacity of the concrete column. Shape modification and addition of stirrups at the same time increased more significantly the axial capacity of the concrete columns. Furthermore, the shape modification and addition of stirrups improved the performance of the columns.
64 143 Improvement of Business Processes in Developing Standard Operation Procedures on Government Building Maintenance Work in Indonesia Rossy Armyn Machfudiyanto, Yusuf Latief, Budi Susilo Soepandji, Prisca Anggia Putri

Maintenance work of government buildings requires the development of Standard Operating Procedures for budget planning until the supervision of maintenance and repair can be done well so that no budget wastage occurs. Risk factors that can cause waste in the planning, maintenance, implementation and supervision maintenance and maintenance of government buildings such as Standard Operating Procedure that is still not developed and organizational functions that are still not perfect. Therefore, good risk management is required in Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) so that it will produce risk management strategy to optimize and improve maintenance performance and maintenance of government building related to building safety, building health, comfort of building and ease of building of government building . this study aims to know the organization of business processes and activities in the process of maintenance, planning, implementation and supervision of government buildings. The methodology used is expert validation, respondent survey and benchmarking analysis in determining its business process. the results of this study found that there are 164 activities in 16 business processes for maintenance work of execution planning and supervision of government buildings

During the last three years, traffic accidents in Mataram-Lombok have been increasing significantly. Interestingly, most of the accidents were dominantly involving high school students’ that using motorcycle. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of age and gender of students’ motorcycle riders on traffic violations and accidents in Mataram City, which is representing a moderate growing city. The investigation was conducted using a questionnaire survey, in which the data were collected from 392 students covering eighteen high schools in Mataram. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was constructed using AMOS V.22.0. The developed model consists of behavioral, violation and accident latent variables. Behavioral constructs comprise of five observed variables namely X1: discipline, X2: skill, X3: emotion, X4: knowledge, and X5: fatigue. Meanwhile, violation constructs consists of three observed variables namely X6: speeding, X7: violation of road marking and traffic sign, and X8: licenses and other documents, and accident constructs have two observed variables namely X9: using brake abruptly as nearly hit an object and X10: suddenly change direction to avoid a collision. It was found that 87.5% of the students’ motorcycle riders did not have riding licenses. Meanwhile, 51.53% of the respondents were above 17 years old and had been involved in traffic accidents. In addition, the study indicated significant relationships between student riding behavior and traffic violations, and between traffic violations and accidents. Gender and age also show differences in the significance (chi-square) values ??between riding behavioral relationship to traffic violations and accidents.
66 145 Shear Properties Evaluation of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites Using V-Notch Shear Test Jauhar Fajrin, Nasmi Herlina Sari

This paper discusses the results of experimental investigation on the shear properties of natural fibre composites using V-Notch or Iosipescu shear test.Thenatural fiber composites were made of jute and hemp fibers reinforced epoxy polymer resin. The testing was conducted using a MTS machine equipped with a 10 kN load cell as per ASTM standard D5379M. The testing machine was set-up to apply the load with the speed of 2 mm/min. It was found that the jute fiber composites (JFC) has the average shear stress of 25.56 MPa, while hemp fiber composites (HFC) has the average value of 22.46 MPa. The load-displacement graphs showed a nearly linear trend at the initial stage of loading and slightly deflected prior to reaching a maximum load. Most of the specimens in both groups, JFC and HFC, were fractured in a diagonal cracking, which also known as an off-axial failure mode. Few specimens were collapsed across the notched section. Both are acceptable failure modes under this type of shear test.
67 146 The Sustainability of Public Transport Operation Based on Financial Point of View Arif Budiarto

One of the key to success in transport modeling is indicated by how large the migration of private transport users to public transport is an option of trip in their daily activities. What the importance of public transport role to solve the problem of traffic jam in urban areas is no longer indisputable. It is uneniable that public transport is a very efficient mode in using road space. Accordance to the Law of No. 22 of 2009 [1], the Government is responsible for the provision of public transport and its availability to meet the needs of people in urban transport. For that reason, the sustainability of public transport becomes a necessity that must be achieved. When there is no possible way to minimize the operating cost, the only way is by raising the revenue. Meanwhile the income is really dependent on the demand of passengers since it confides the multiplication of the number of passengers with the tariff that has been set by goverment.This paper attempts to analyze the financial resilience on of public transport in Surakarta City i.e. of Batik Solo Trans (BST) based on the demand data of users of public transport.This study found that the number of real passengers per year is very little that are only 87,908 passengers and the operation of BST suffers losses of Rp. 308,718,673 per year. If it continues to happen then the sustainability is difficult to maintain, unless the Surakarta Municipal Government is willing to cover the loss.The operation of BST will reach break even point if the number of passengers reaches 165,606 people per year.

Unfulfilled need for irrigation water potentially reduces the potential development of farmland. To find out the management attempt, irrigation water efficiency should be found out and physical condition and function of existing infrastructure should be evaluated; the efficiency of irrigation water is found to find out whether or not the water loss in irrigation network has been consistent with the specified stipulation. Meanwhile, the evaluation on physical condition and the function of irrigation network is intended to get irrigation area performance index. From irrigation area performance index, it can be found the damage and its effect on service area and damage level in irrigation network infrastructure can be identified. The assessment of irrigation network performance based on weights of each aspect is consistent with what is governed in Public Work Minister’s Regulation No.32 of 2007. The research location being the object of research was Tlatak Irrigation Area located in Parang Sub District of Magetan Regency having much damage. The result of research showed the irrigation efficiency of 74,24% % lower than the specified criterion of 90%. Considering the assessment, the performance of Tlatak irrigation system was 61.11, belonging to poor performance or needing attention. The attempts taken to manage it were periodical maintenance in irrigation channels in improving the efficiency of irrigation channel, well construction in the attempt of fulfilling the water need and improving the role of water user farmer association.
69 150 Evaluation of sediment management for two large reservoirs in Lombok Island Ery Setiawan, Syamsul Hidayat, Ida Bagus Giri Putra, Muhammad Bagus Budianto, Salehudin

One important issue in reservoir planning, design, operation as well as rehabilitation and maintenance is sedimentation. This problem is worsened by seasonal water scarcity as a characteristic of arid and semi-arid catchments. Worldwide loss of storage capacity due to sedimentation is much higher than the increase of capacity by the construction of new reservoirs. Further, the sedimentation hinders the safe operation of not only shallow reservoirs but also deep reservoirs by means of turbidity currents which sporadically transporting large volumes of sediments down to the dams. As a contribution to reservoir sedimentation management, this study analysis the real case of Pengga reservoir and Batujai reservoir located in an arid region in Central Indonesia. Selected sediment management alternatives were analysed and evaluated based on technical, social and environmental criteria. Evaluation of sediment management alternatives.was conducted by utilising the REServoir CONservation (RESCON) tool. Results showed that, first, both flushing technique and hydrosuction are feasiblewhereas dredging and trucking are not. Secondly, the flushing technique outweigh the Hydrosuction Sediment Removal (HSRS) method. Thirdly, application of HSRS method in both reservoirs shares one thing in common i.e. it requires appropriate combination of number of suction pipes as well as minimum suction pipe diameters. Lastly, there are some differences in details of implementation of flushing technique to both reservoirs.
70 153 Dynamic Bayesian Updating Approach for predicting Bridge Condition Based on Indonesia-Bridge Management System (I-BMS) Jojok Widodo Soetjipto, Tri Joko Wahyu Adi, Nadjadji Anwar

The bridge is one of the most important infrastructures to support the transportation system.It requires continuous monitoring to keep its condition and functionality. Bridge monitoring is usedto support the maintenance strategy in order to prevent deteriorationand sudden failure. This paper aims to proposeprobabilistic prediction model of bridge condition based on Dynamic Bayesian Updating Approach. Around 3.166 data of bridges in Indonesia were collected from the Directorate of Bridge of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing for calculating the conditional probability table (CPT) of the model. The medium-span concrete bridge was used as a case study to validate the proposedmodel. The results show that the proposed model can predict the condition of the bridge accurately.It also can be used as the early warning system in order to prevent disaster due to technology failure.
71 154 A Study of CO2 Emission Reduction Due to Transportation Activities in Brebes District through Road Repair Fajar Mubarok, Dewi Handayani, Syafi’i

Global climate change has prompted the Government of Republic of Indonesia committing to active role and participation in the attempt of reducing Greenhouse Gas (GRK) emission through national action program. One of the biggest sector contributes in producing GRK is transportation. Meanwhile, the condition of road also affects the speed of vehicles. This study analyzed the relationship among road condition, travel speed, and resulted CO2 emission. This research was conducted by taking some class III roads in Brebes as the samples. The stages of this study are assessing the road condition by using the PCI method; calculating the average speed of vehicle on each sample road; and from the data of travel speed, the value of CO2 emission was calculated use IPCC method. The result of this study indicated that the road condition is the factor that affects the travel speed. Increasing the value of PCI by 10 points from the lowest value will reduce CO2 emissions by 3.36% for gasoline-fueled vehicles. This research suggests improving the road condition in Brebes district in order to support Local Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction.
72 158 Ground Settlement Prediction of Embankment Treated with Prefabricated Vertical Drains in Soft Soil Siswoko Adi Saputro, Agus Setyo Muntohar, Hung Jiun Liao

Excessive settlement due to consolidation can cause damage to the structures rest on soft soil. The settlement takes place in relatively longer. The preloading and prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is often applied to accelerate the primary settlement. The issue in this research is the estimation of the settlement and duration. The Asaoka method and the finite element method (FEM) using PLAXIS 2D are used to estimate the final consolidation settlement of a PVD treated embankment. For the former, a complete record of settlement was required; for the latter, some ground parameters are needed for the PLAXIS 2D analysis, such as the coefficient of permeability of soil must be carefully selected. Because the installation process of PVD tends to influence the permeability of the in-situ soil around the PVD. So the soil permeability after the installation of PVD needs to be adjusted. The numerical results were compared with actual settlement data to find out the best-fit input parameters (such as permeability of the soil and PVD spacing) of the field measurement data. The modified Cam-clay model was used in PLAXIS analysis. It was found that the best-fit coefficient of permeability (k) used in the numerical study was about one-half of the k value determined from the laboratory test. The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) shows that the settlement predicted by the numerical software has approximately 30% of the actual settlement.
73 161 A structural performance evaluation of vertical housing modPerformance of Composite Local Glass Fibre Sheets and Epoxy on Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using a pushover analysis I Ketut Sudarsana

Application of fibre sheets to strengthening reinforced concrete members has been investigated extensively. This paper presents the results on the use of composite local materials such as woven roving glass fibre sheets and epoxy to flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams. As many as 24 specimens with variation on the number of fibre layers (one and two layers) and end anchorage techniques (fasteners, U-shape straps, steel bolts) have been tested. It is shown the effectiveness of glass fibre can be attained only on the specimen with one-layer sheet indicated by the rupture of fibre composite before the specimen failure. Strengthening using two layers, bonding failure and delamination of fibre occur before the fibre develops maximum strength. Applying end anchors on the cut of point of the two layers fibreglass improves performance of the composite materials in the range of 5.0% to 16.5%. In addition, the end anchors also prevent delamination of the fibre sheet to occur at the cut of point.
74 169 Comparative Study on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints with Reference to Monolithic and non-monolithic Connection Ninik Catur Endah Yuliati, Dewi Sri Murni, Wisnumurti, Wibowo Ari

The method of implementation of reinforced concrete construction has progressed very rapidly. This development aims to speed up time and reduce implementation costs. One of the most widely used methods is the precast method. But the less popular precast method is used for simple storey buildings. Therefore, in this study, the semi-precast method was presented which is easy to implement in a simple storey building. Parts of columns and beams were cast in place with a different casting time. Therefore, the connection between columns and beams become non-monolithic. This study presented a comparison between the deflection and the static load capacity that can be received by the connection of reinforced concrete beam-column which is monolithically connected and non- monolithic. 3 sets of specimens were made to represent monolithic and non-monolithic. The non-monolithic specimens were made with 2 models, ie without a notch, and with the notch. The beam-column connections were tested experimentally and compared to the monolithic beam-column connection. The results showed that non-monolithic test specimens made notch as additional shear fields at the the interface of beams and columns could increase load capacity and reduce deflection compared with the model without notch. The experimental results also showed that the strength and performance of structural non-monolithic beam-column connections were as good as those of monolithic beam-column joints.
75 172 Quantification of root reinforcement in bio-slope stabilization: laboratory and field studies Apiniti Jotisankasa, Danainut Taworn, Nattasit Chumchey, Jiraroth Sukolratn.a

Bio-slope stabilization is an environmentally friendly and sustainable technique for rehabilitation and maintenance of slope infrastructure. The processes in which these plants stabilize the slope, particularly root reinforcement, and evapotranspiration,mainly involvedunsaturated zone of the slope. Plants are also subjected to continuous change during the life time of bio-engineered slope. This paper reports on recent studies on influence of roots on saturated and unsaturated soil properties, and suction effects on root reinforcement. These experimental results were then used to estimate the change in in-situ root reinforcement of bio-stabilized slope in the field. A new methodology based on mini-rhizotron technique was proposed which linked the root-area ratio with root-reinforced strength and factor of safety of the slope through laboratory-based relationships. This newly proposed method can be used to evaluate time-based performance of vegetated slope infrastructure in practice.
76 175 Tsunami Simulation Using Particle Method Raden Harya Dananjayan.a

Tsunami is the one of natural hazards resulting severe damages. Many researches have been conducted to study and encounter it using field monitoring, laboratory test as well as numerical method. Mainly the laboratory test is expensive and difficult. Numerical simulation overcomes this drawback and can be used in combination with laboratory test. Recently, newcomer mesh-less lagrangian particle method so-called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is received more attention. In this paper, SPH method will be employed to simulate the tsunami. A SPH code will be developed from scratch. To validate the code, traditional dam break simulation will be conducted. Finally the tsunami model will be simulated using developed SPH code and compared with past experimental data. The results show that the code has a good agreement with past experimental data and numerical simulation. Small deviation arises in tsunami simulation. The velocity of the code is smaller than the experimental data. These problems arise due to several reasons, i.e. the choice of the SPH parameters, and the simplification of the model. Generally speaking, the developed SPH code has a good performance to model the tsunami and dam-break problem.
77 178 Field performance of shalow recharge well Edy Susilo

The need for recharge wells in big cities especially in Indonesia to reduce peak flood discharge is very urgent. However, the technical calculation of the need for recharge wells has not been fully supported for this purpose. Some recharge well methods are Horton, Sunjoto, HMTL-ITB, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesian National Standard, Association for Rainwater Storage and Infiltration Technology, and California Storm water Quality Association. The hypothetical test of recharge wells at the depth and texture of a particular soil is different from the observed infiltration recharge. So it needs to have field test of recharge wells for different soil texture. By using recharge well, observed the infiltration at the well. With well diameter, soil permeability, and water depth variables, it is expected that the infiltration recharge equation in the well can be empirically better suited to the performance of the recharge well.

Lightweight concrete is one of the alternative materials as the conventional concrete replacement particularly in coping with the earthquake due to it has weight volume under 1840 kg/m3. Among the materials of concrete, the one which has the highest mass refers to the coarse aggregates, so that in order to make the lightweight concrete, it is necessary to make an innovation to reduce the mass on coarse aggregate. One of them is to make ALWA (Artificial light weight aggregate) by using polystyrene as its material. In this study, polystyrene was firstly dissolved by using acetone then formed to resemble a coarse aggregate. Besides, two types of cement used were OPC and PPC. As for the additional composition of polystyrene used into the concrete dealt with the percentage of 0%, 15%, 50% and 100% of the coarse aggregate volume. The result of the study showed that the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity produced were decreased along with the increasing of ALWA percentage added to the concrete mix. The optimum amount of concrete compressive strength using OPC mixture with the addition of 15% was 27.20 MPa, while for modulus of elasticity amounted of 21496.72 MPa.
79 182 User cost estimation on flexible and rigid pavement Fajar Sri Handayani, Rheza Imam Prabowo, Aria Ramandika Kurnia, Florentina Pungky Pramesti, Mochamad Agung Wibowo, Ary Setyawan

The condition of unsatisfactory Indonesia’s local roads needs to be improved to support national transportation network. However, construction activities to improve it often has negative impacts, among other: an increasing of user cost. This article aims to calculate user cost generated by flexible and rigid pavement construction. This study was carried out on a local road in Indonesia. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) method is use to analysis the user cost. The results shown that user cost of flexible pavement construction of 10 years and 20 years’ design life are US$ 734,290 and US$ 449,830 respectively, futhermore user cost of rigid pavement construction of 10 years and 20 years’ design life are US$ 1,994,920 and US$ 1.203.640 respectively. These indicate that the longer of analysis period, the more economical of user cost.
80 183 Diagonal Reinforcement as Strengthening to Increase the Stiffness and Strength of Concrete Frame Yenny Nurchasanah, Muhammad Ujianto, Abdul Rochmann.a

The diagonal area of the structural wall is the area that receives the largest shear force in which characterized by cracking or crushing. Two test objects of concrete frame behavior against lateral loading were performed by applying structural analysis with the wall as diagonal reinforcement in modeling. The results of the structural analysis indicated that concrete frames with walls have better performance than concrete frames without walls. Twelve objects consisting of the frame without the wall, frame with the wall, and frame with a group of steel and bamboo as diagonal reinforcement at brick wall and concrete panel wall were tested at the laboratory with monotonic lateral forces that work parallel to the wall as the illustration of earthquake loads. The addition of diagonal reinforcement elements can spread the force that received by the wall and increase the strength of wall as well as enhance the stiffness of the structural system at once. Bracing contributes to increasing the strength, especially in resisting the compress forces due to the earthquake loads. Deformation occurs in the opposite direction between compression path and tension path at the diagonal area. The failure in the concrete frame can be caused by the in-plane force parallel to the wall. Bamboo is quite effective to be used as a substitute for steel reinforcement as bracing material despite its shortage of steel quality.
81 185 Analytical Prediction of Tension Force on Stirrups in Concrete Beams Longitudinally Reinforced with CFRP Bars Rendy Thamrinn.a

An analytical study to predict the tension force of stirrups in concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) bars was carried out. Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) was applied in this study and a computer program was developed to facilitate the calculation process. The analytical results were compared with test data adopted from experimental study. Three concrete beams longitudinally reinforced with CFRP bars and transversely reinforced with steel bars were tested. Stirrups spacing was used as test variable. The beams were tested until failure and strains on the stirrups measured. The comparison between test results and the MCFT results shows MCFT predicts the growth of tension force in stirrups well.
82 188 A Comparative Study of Base Isolation Devices in Light Rail Transit Structure featured with Lead Rubber Bearing and Friction Pendulum System Santi Nuraini, Asdam Tambusay, Priyo Suprobo

Advanced nonlinear analysis in light rail transit (LRT) structure has been undertaken to examine the influence of seismic isolation devices for reducing seismic demand. The study employed the use of two types of commercially available bearings, namely lead rubber bearing (LRB) and friction pendulum system (FPS). Six LRT structures, designed to be built in Surabaya, were modelled using computer-aided software SAP2000, with each three structures consisted of three types of LRB and FPS placed onto the pier cap to support the horizontal upper-structural member. Nonlinear static pushover and dynamic time history analysis with seven improved ground motion data were performed to gain improved insights on behavioural response of LRT structures, allowing one to fully understand the supremacy of seismic isolations for protecting the structure against seismic actions. It is shown that both devices manage to isolate seismic forces, resulting in alleviation of excessive base shear occurred at the column. In addition, it is noticeable that the overall responses of LRB and FPS show marginal discrepancies, suggesting both devices are interchangeable to be used for LRT-like structures.
83 192 Improving resilience of moment frames using steel pipe dampers Junaedi Utomo, Antonius

Earthquake resiliency of moment resisting frames, either new or existing ones, are important for maintaining community functionality. Improving earthquakeresiliency needs a strong initiative in reducing earthquake risk. Steel pipe dampers can be used to increase earthquake resiliency. Steel pipe dampers, when installed at strategic locations in the moment frame structures, dissipate most of the earthquake energy in structures through inelastic deformation so that other components of the structures are protected.Steel pipe dampers control vibration in moment frame structures. Steel pipe dampers are disposable component in structures so that the damage dampers can be replaced easily. Steel pipe dampers are cheap and require low workmanship therefore the recovery time after disaster is short and the cost of recovery is low. Utilizing steel pipe dampers in passive energy dissipation system help maintaining community functionality during and after disaster.Lateral displacements were quantified and used as performance indicators. Significant drift and inter story drift reduction were achieved during numerical study. All structural components, except the steel pipe dampers, remain elastic indicating the effectiveness of the dampers in reducing the losses due to earthquakes.
84 194 The use of andesite-sand grinded and foaming-agent on porosity of foam-concrete Rommel Erwin, Rusdianto Yunan, Dawara Kiki Ruris, Eddy S Tri

The use of green concrete has rapidly increase the demand in construction. Foam concrete is a lightweight concrete type that has the characteristics of lightweight, good insulation properties, but low strength, highly porous, high absorption. The use of sand smoothed andesite in the manufacture of foam concrete is expected to improve the properties of porous concrete. In this study, 120 cube 5 cm to the density testing, compressive strength testing and porosity testing of foam concrete. Foam concrete made with a mixture of cement, sand andesite of 1: 2.75 and w/c 0.7 and a foam agent, respectively 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. Porosity measurements with soaking method and the concrete compressive strength test performed, respectively at the age of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The results concluded that the increasing use of foam agent will reduce the value of density and compressive strength. While the porosity of foam concrete measured at "volume of permeable void" will increase with decreasing density and compressive strength of concrete.
85 198 A Comparative Analysis of the Quality of Concrete Blocks Produced from Coconut Fibre, Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch, and Rice Husk as a Filler Materials Mohammad Lutfi, Muh. Yamin, Mujibu Rahman, Elisa Ginsel Popang

The accumulation of coconut fibre (CF), oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), and rice husk (RH) every year can reduce the fertility of the soil, water absorption, and causes water acidification. Waste utilization as a filler materials of concrete blocks was discussed in this research. Experimental design was used by comparing the quality of concrete blocks based on 36 specimens with varied composition of waste (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% by dry weight of total sand) and 3 specimens (0%) for control specimens with 3 replications for each composition. The quality of paving blocks were determined based on the testing of water absorption, porosity, compressive strength, and density. The results revealed that the quality of concrete blocks with the composition of CF (1% and 2%), OPEFB (1% and 2%), and RH (1%) meet the requirements of SNI 03-0691-1996 criteria in category B for parking paver and the maximum composition of each waste materials (3% and 4%) still comply SNI 15-2094-2000 in class 100 and 150 for the block walls. Statistical analysis revealed that the best treatments for compressive strength were RH (1%) and for water absorption were RH (2%) and CF (4%).
86 199 A Preliminary Study of the Low Density Particle Boards Quality using Rice Husk and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch with Plastic Waste Adhesive Muh. Yamin, Rudito, Andi Lisnawati, Mohammad Lutfi

The accumulation of rice husk (RH), oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), and plastic waste (PW) can reduce the fertility of the soil. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the low density particle boards using those waste. Experimental design was used by testing the quality of particle boards with substitution 50 % by weight of total mixes for each waste (RH and OPEFB) and 50% of PW with 3 replications. The results revealed that the quality of the low density particle boards based on water content, density, and modulus of rupture (MOR) tests meet the requirements of SNI 03-2105-2006, whereas the modulus of elasticity (MOE), thickness swelling, water absorption, and the tension perpendicular to surface tests do not comply the requirements. This preliminary study revealed that the quality of particle boards using OPEFB was better than the particle boards using RH for building materials such as ceiling.
87 200 Determination of the seismicity and peak ground acceleration for Lombok Island: An evaluation on tectonic setting Didi S. Agustawijaya, Heri Sulistiyono, Ikhwan Elhuda

Lombok Island is located in Nusatenggara region, which is considered as one of the most active seismic parts in Indonesia. The determination of seismicity is crucial to the island, since Lombok Island is a relatively dense populated small island. Earthquakes occurred around the island were generated by southern subduction mega-thrust and northern back-arc thrust. Mostly distributions are concentrated on the north-west and south-east parts of Lombok Island. Probabilistic data analysis of 309 earthquake events during the period of 1973 – 2017 results in the Gutenberg-Richter parameters (a and b) of 3.62 and -0.53 indicating medium to high seismic activities. The Joyner-Boore attenuation relation seems to be suitable for seismic characteristics of the island. The reconstruction of tectonic setting indicates that the Benioff zone may develop at the depths of 150 km beneath the island causing horizontal tectonic forces working within the direction of N 171 0E – N 351 0E. This could create a strike-slip fault on the crustal basement within the NE – SW direction.
88 201 The Effect of Egg Shell Powder on The Compression Strength of Fine-Grained Soil Ely Jauharotus S, Niken Silmi Surjandari, Raden Harya Dananjaya

High plasticity clay has several problems including high plasticity index and low bearing capacity. Stabilization of high plasticity clay is still extensively explored, especially for low-cost and easy to obtained material. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of eggshell powder (ESP) on high plasticity clay. This research uses soil sample obtained from Jenggrik Village, Ngawi Regency, East Java. Furthermore, the problematic soils at liquidity index of 0 – 1.25 are mixed with the ESP in various percentage, i.e. 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Several laboratory tests have been conducted to examine the effects of the mixtures, such as index properties, unconfined compressive strength and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result indicates that the liquidity index affects to the soil stabilized by ESP. SEM test results show that the soil structure changes, it becomes dense on a mixture containing 10% of ESP. The conclusion of this research is the higher the liquidity, the lower the strength.
89 204 The Influence of Vehicle Speed Changes at Mechanistic Performance of Asphalt Mixture Senja Rum Harnaeni, F. Pungky Pramesti, Arif Budiarto, Ary Setyawan

Asphalt mixture is a viscoelastic material. The behavior of this material combines two parts : elastic behavior and viscous behavior. Several factors affect the behavior of viscoelastic material. Temperature and loading time are the most critical of these parameters. Viscoelastic material has more elastic behavior at low temperatures and more viscously at high temperatures. Asphalt mixture as a viscoelastic material behaves as a viscous liquid at long times of loading and behaves like an elastic solid at short times of loading. Vehicle speed affects in time loading, therefore very important to know the influence of vehicle speed changes in mechanictic performance of bitumen (for example : bitumen stiffness) and asphalt mixture (such as asphalt mix stiffness and fatigue life asphalt mix) with different aggregate gradation types, namely dense graded and gap graded. Based on data bitumen penetration, bitumen softening point, volume of bitumen, volume of aggregate and volume of voids, mechanistic performance of bitumen and asphalt mixture influenced by vehicle speed changes can be predicted using software BANDS 2.0. The variation of vehicle speed will be carried out to see its significance. The study was initiated by testing bitumen and asphalt mixture materials, including asphalt penetration 60/70 according to Bina Marga (2010) specification of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. Subsequently, preparation of gradation mixture for AC-WC and HRS-WC based on Bina Marga (2010) was carried out, followed by Marshall Test with five variations of bitumen content on each asphalt mixture to determine optimum bitumen content. Based on the result of optimum bitumen content, specimens are made to determine the Marshall properties of the two diverse gradation asphalt mixtures using Marshall Test. The mixture consist of AC-WC and HRS-WC by considering their different gradations, in addition to its widely using as wearing course in Indonesia. The results of BANDS 2.0 simulation exhibits mechanistic performance of asphalt mixture theoretically. It shows that vehicle speed changes influence bitumen stiffness, asphalt mix stiffness and fatigue life asphalt mix. The higher vehicle speed the higher bitumen stiffness and asphalt mix stiffness, but the lower fatigue life asphalt mix. At the same vehicle speed, asphalt mix stiffness of dense graded mixture higher than gap graded mixture. The other way for fatigue life asphalt mix.
90 206 Contribution of suction on the stability of reinforced-soil retaining wall Nurly Gofar, Hanafiah

Existing design methods of a reinforced-soil retaining wall were established for walls with cohesionless soil backfill. However, local soil has been used widely in the construction of such wall for economical reason. Laboratory and numerical study has pointed out the merit of using cohesive backfill in association with geosynthetics reinforcement. Since the compacted soil was in an unsaturated condition during the construction of the reinforced wall, the apparent cohesion derived from both soil mineralogy and suction could contribute to the stability of the wall. This paper considersmethods to include the suction contribution to the existing design guidelines based on slope stability analysis, i.e. simplified method and simplified stiffness method. The analyses were carried out on a case study of geosynthetics reinforced soil retaining wall. Results show that the cohesion has a major contribution in the stability of reinforced soil retaining wall. Therefore, the contribution of suction as part of cohesion existing in the cohesive backfill could be considered for the stability analysis of reinforced soil retaining wall using the available design guidelines.
91 208 Service Life Planning for Electronics, Mechanical and Electrical Components of a Hotel Building Peter F. Kaming, Desi Maryani, Michael Boenardin.a

Service life planning of electronic, electrical, and mechanical components of building was studied for a hotel building at Yogyakarta. The study aims at collecting service life for electronics, mechanical and electrical, and estimating of the component’s service life. Data were collected from practitioners working in the management of building maintenance in various hotels in Yogyakarta. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The paper discusses the approach how available reference service life and service period data can be collected and applied in life cycle costing. Results of service-life data for periodical maintenance and replacement for various electronics, mechanical and electrical for life cycle planning are also presented.
92 210 Aerodynamic Performance of Long Span Steel Truss Bridges in Indonesia Suangga Made, Irpanni Herry

Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago with many major rivers in the big islands of Sumatera, Kalimantan, and Java. As part of its road network, major bridges are constructed crossing the rivers. Considering the span of the bridges and its aesthetic point of view, the application of Long Span Steel Truss Bridge in Indonesia is very popular among others. Its span varies from 70 m to 270 meter length. For long span bridges, aerodynamic is of an important aspect for the design and construction of the bridges. In order to ensure the stability of the bridges against the aerodynamic effect of the wind, wind tunnel study and test has been conducted for most of the bridges. This paper presents the parameter and characteristic of several Long Span Steel Truss Bridge in Indonesia, i.e. Tayan Kapuas Bridge, Musi VI Bridge, New Kutai Kartanegara Bridges and Teluk Mesjid Bridge. The bridges will be assessed against BD 49/01. Parameters and assessment results are then compared with wind tunnel results.
93 218 Experimental analysis of T-beam reinforced concrete with holes Hotma Panggabean, Nicxson Pakpahan

Path installation of reinforced concrete structures on the aforementioned construction using holes of the structural parts and generally functions for multi-storey buildings which were required of utility networks such as power lines, piping, telephone cables, air conditioners, etc. The networks usually sited in the space above of ceiling or attach installed to the beam. Consequently, it can be reduced the height of rooms of the buildings and disconcerting aesthetically. An alternative design, therefore, was needed, and one of which was by utilizing spaces on the beam structures. In this research, we used experimental method by perform analytical calculation initially and the results of the laboratory’s checks for a collapse model on the test object I is a flexural collapse model. The collapse model on Test objects II and III was a shear failure model. Further, the test specimen III of 3-hollow beam T beam cross section was feeblest of other cross section with the type of shear failure occurring on the holes of the maximum shear area.
94 224 Application of high stregth reinforcing bars in earthquake-resistant structure elements Kurniawan Setiadi Kamaruddin, Iswandi Imran, Maulana Derry Imansyah, Muhammad Riyansyah, Aris Ariyanto

Currently, design of reinforced concrete building is still dominated with normal strength reinforcing bars, not exceeding 420 MPa of yield strength. Meanwhile, the use of higher strength reinforcing bars tend to increase due to some benefits in the construction, such as reducing the total weight of reinforcing bars and alleviating reinforcing bars congestions. In this study, reinforcing bars with yield strength of 520 MPa are utilized in the reinforced concrete beam-column joint. The objective is to study theseismic performance of reinforced concrete beam-column joint. A total of 3 interior beam-column joints, half-scaled specimens with different yield strength and bar diameter was tested. One of the test specimens with 16 mm diameter of normal strength reinforcing barsis used as a control specimen. The other two specimens use high strength reinforcing bars, having 16 mm and 19 mm bar diameter. Loading protocol of all the specimens is conformed with ACI 374.2. Dissipation energy and stiffness degradation of the joints is then compared. Normalized energy dissipation of the specimens with high strength reinforcing bars slightly lower than that of the specimens with normal reinforcing bars. However, at the end of the loading, the specimens with high strength reinforcing bars tends to have slightly smaller stiffness degradation than that of the specimens with normal reinforcing bars.
95 226 Seismic performance of four-storey masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame building Isyana Ratna Hapsari, Senot Sangadji, Stefanus Adi Kristiawan

Masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame is a structural system commonly used for low-to-mid-rise building. Generally, this type of structure is modelled as an open frame neglecting the strength and stiffness contribution of the masonry infilled panel. In order to describe realistic behaviour under lateral loading, this paper evaluates seismic performance of the building by modelling the contribution of masonry wall as a compression strut acting diagonally in the panel. Non-linear static procedure is employed by subjecting the building to pushover load. The performance of the building is then analysed based on the obtained capacity curve. Seismic performance is assessed in terms of building fragility which is conditional probability of exceeding certain damage state for a given ground shaking intensity. Fragility functions eventually is expressed as series of log-normal curves of both the open and masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame. Based on this study, the seismic performance of the buildings can be determined rationally as follows: the infilled frame structure can resist a maximum lateral load of 20.3 x 103kN, while the open frame is only able to withstand a maximum load of 15.2x103kN.From the fragility curve, it can be concludedthat the probability of the masonry infilled frame to reach a certain damage state is lower than that of the open frame. The results confirm the beneficial effect of the masonry infilled wall to increase the seismic resistance of the building.
96 227 Current State Mapping of Supply Chain in Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) Project: A Case Study Moh Nur Sholeh, Shifa Fauziyah

Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) is one of construction models that integrated the work between engineering, procurement, and construction. The EPC project is usually applied in petroleum work. One of important aspects of success key in this project is supply chain management (SCM). The high level of complexity of work as well as the integration of the construction phase needs to be mapped how the supply chain in this project. This paper used Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method to explain the procurement processes for easier understanding and problem identification. It illustrated the procurement process behaviour within specific period from the total production time. This paper describes a case study performed on EPC 1 Banyu Urip Project. VSM presented a real-time data to deliver with the processes, material, and any other constraint relevant to the procurement process on EPC project. Based on a case study on pipe material, the procurement process from upstream to downstream took 21 weeks. It was a waste of time to look for solutions. The recommended solutions are use the local vendors, involve suppliers early and provide input into engineering design, and good communication between supply chain participants.
97 232 Numerical analysis of castellated beam with oval openings Yanuar Setiawan, Ay Lie Han, Buntara Sthenly Gan, Junaedi Utomo

The use of castellated beams has become more popular in the last two decades. The main idea for the use of these type of steel beams is to reduce the self-weight by providing openings in the web of wide flange (WF) or I sections. Numerous research on castellated beams has been conducted, the majority of the studies aimed to optimize the opening size and the shape configuration of the openings. A numerical analysis of castellated beam with oval openings was performed in this study. The sections under investigation were having variations in the height-to-length ratios of the beam. The Do to D and b to Do ratios were kept a constant. The D value was defined as the height of the beam, whiles Do is the height of the opening, and b is the width of the opening. The numerical analysis was performed by the finite element analysis using the STRAND7 software. The numerical model was further validated to the experimental data. The results showed that the developed finite element model resulted in a very good representation to the actual behavior of the sections.
98 233 Method of Removing Secondary Compression on Clay Using Preloading Ega Dhianty, Indrasurya B. Mochtar

Due to external loads, the soft soil will undergo a large compression of both primary and secondary compression. With soil improvement using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD), the time of primary compression becomes shorter so that secondary compression occurs in short time. There has been little research on how to remove secondary compression. Therefore, further investigation of behaviour and method of removing secondary compression is necessary. This research was conducted based on experimental study of clay consolidation test with variation of loading time in the laboratory. The results show that there is an empirical correlation among the Secondary Compression Index (C?'), Initial Void Ratio (e0), Void Ratio at End of Primary Consolidation (ep), and Effective Consolidation Stress (P'). The correlations obtained from this study are C?' = (0.0072e0 - 0.0067) P'and C?' = (0.0077ep – 0.006) P'. The greater the Effective Consolidation Stress, the greater the Secondary Compression Index will become. Therefore,in soil improvement secondary compression can be removed by givinganextra load (?q) that causes additional compression to the primary consolidation with the magnitude equals to the expected secondary compression. Then, this ?q could be removed at the end of the primary consolidation.
99 235 Effect of Moisture Content of Cohesive Subgrade Soil Adnan Bin Zainorabidin, Dian Hastari Agustina

A good subgrade for road pavement is required to support the traffic load that passing through. The characteristic of the subgrade is determined by the stress-strain behaviour that expressed as resilient modulus. The performance of the pavement is affected by characteristics of the subgrade. Characteristics of clay soil generally have a low of bearing capacity, especially to support the load induced by wheel load of vehicle. Clay soil is very sensitive to a change of temperature and moisture content. The changes of moisture content caused the changes on subgrade resilient modulus value. This paper is study the resilient modulus of subgrade of clay soil by laboratory testing. To investigate the effect of moisture content, this testing is done on dry side, OMC condition and wet side. The result show the difference of resilient modulus characteristic and deformation that influence by moisture content.
100 238 Evaluation of Urban Freight Transport Operations in Surakarta City Budi Yulianto

The growth of urban economy is highly dependent on the reliable supply of goods and commodity logistics. At the same time, the presence of uncontrolled urban freight transport has the potential to cause infrastructure damage, traffic congestion, traffic accidents, air pollution and noise. Therefore, it requires a firm transportation policy from the Central and City Government to optimise the urban freight transport operation, so that its negative impacts can be overcome. In an effort to monitor and control the urban freight transport, the Municipal Government of Surakarta City shall issue a dispensation license for the freight vehicle through the inner city road in Surakarta City. Nevertheless, the facts on the ground indicate that traffic violations by freight vehicles against the provisions of existing regulations in Surakarta city are relatively high and thus have the potential to decrease the level of safety, road service and environmental sustainability. This is due to the weakness of the system of monitoring and control of urban freight transport is low both in terms of technically and legality. The research aims are to evaluate and improve the current system of monitoring and control of urban freight transport related to the provision of dispensation licensefor the freight vehicle through the inner city road in Surakarta City. The results of analysis indicate that percentage of unlicensed urban freight transport is significant in number, no clarity associated with licensing dispensation for urban freight transport weighing > 9,000 kg, significant number of traffic violation, road bearing capacity of freight transport routes do not correspond to the vehicle weight. Various recommendations are proposed for improving the current system of monitoring and control of urban freight transport.
101 251 Analysis of Influencing Factors on Using Rental Bikes at Shopping Tourism Sites in Surakarta Erlin Setyowati, Dewi Handayani, Syafi’i

Surakarta as a tourism city has launched green transportation as a program in the goverment policy. Bikes as supporting mode of green transportation haven’t got much attention from the users, including in tourism sites. Therefore, the aims of this study is to obtain the factors which influence the use of tourism bikes in Surakarta in the form of rental bikes. The location of the study were several shopping tourism sites in Surakarta, namely Pasar Gede, Pusat Grosir Solo, Beteng Trade Center, and Pasar Klewer. The data were collected by using questionnaire with interview method to the respondents of the visitors of the shopping sites and analyzed with PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method. The result of the research showed that weather condition, air pollution, bike track topography, and distance were main factors which influenced the people to use rental bikes in tourism sites of Surakarta
102 252 Characterization and Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Paste Based on Fly Ash Ari Widayanti, Ria Asih Aryani Soemitro, Hitapriya Suprayitno, Januarti J. Ekaputri

Fly ash is a by-product obtained from coal combustion process. Some of the utilization of fly ash is to produce geopolymer products which have high compressive strength, fire and chemical resistance. This paper proposes fly ash from unit 1-7 Suralaya Power Plant Indonesia. The aims of this study are to obtain characterization of fly ash and mechanical properties of geopolymer paste based on variation of alkali activator ratio. The method was based on previous research and laboratory investigation. XRF and compressive strength were analysed in this study. Alkali activator was obtained from NaOH (6 M and 8 M) and Na2SiO3 mixture. The ratios of Na2SiO3 to NaOH were in the range of 0.5 to 2.5. Geopolymer paste was casted in acrylic cylinder with diameter of 2 cm and height of 4 cm. The curing was conducted at room temperature. The compressive strength test was done at 28 days. The result showed that major chemical compositions of fly ash consist of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 which is classified as F class. Increasing of alkali activator ratio influenced the strength. The best composition of geopolymer paste is 8 Molar NaOH, The ratio of Na2SiO3 to NaOH is 2.5. This composition produced compressive strength of 98.6 MPa.
103 255 Analysis of the Distribution of Domestic Wastewater in the Brantas River Area of Malang City Prihatiningsih Bekti , Kusuma Zaenal, Suharyanto, Agus, Setyoleksono Amin

The degradation of water quality has become a major problem today. In Indonesia, the decline in water quality is caused by domestic wastewater which is a non point sources. Non point sources aren’t easily identifiable and marked so that pollution sources are needed to reveal the impacts. In an effort to reduce the occurrence of environmental degradation due to domestic wastewater, it is necessary to give an idea and convince the public and the relevant parties the importance of domestic wastewater management. Efforts are made by informing the pattern of distribution of domestic wastewater in a region and the impact of its distribution for its control and management.The research method uses a momentary sampling technique that is wastewater taken momentarily at one particular location, in accordance with SNI 6989.59:2008. The location of the water sampling is determined purporsively. The sampling point of water in the drainage channel is the flow of liquid waste from the various activities of the population that flows into the drainage channel. Sampling was conducted in two periods; the dry season in September and the rainy season in January. The observed parameters included BOD5 and E.coli. Determination of the distribution of domestic wastewater using GIS. The distribution of domestic wastewater is determined based on pollution levels expressed as IP. The results show that pollution levels in Sawojajar and Sumbersari were lightly polluted with average IPs of 4.09 and 4.02 (dry season). While Kedungkandang is in good category, IP = 0.32 (dry season).
104 256 The Effect of Addition of Banana Tree Bark for Compressive Strenght and Crack Tensile Strenght of Rice Husk Ash Concrete Muhammad Rizqi, Hernu Suyoso, Gati Annisa Hayu

The use of concrete as the main material in the construction is not mean it has no weaknesses. The brittle, low-density concrete properties make it collapse unexpectedly. In this work, a concrete innovation was performed to increase the compressive strength by the addition of rice husk ash as cement substitution that containing SiO2 of 92.31% and by addition of banana tree bark. The proportion of rice husk ash used was obtained from preliminary tests to determining the proportion of rice husk ash by 5%, 7%, 10%, 12% and 15% of the cement’s weight. The result of proportion which yielded the optimum concrete compressive strength by 24.4 MPa in the proportion of rice husk ash by 7%, then was made with the same ash content in adduction of banana tree bark fiber with fiber variation 0%; 1.5%; 2% and 3%. The Result of The test concluded that the addition of banana tree bark fiber can decrease the compressive strength and tensile strength of concrete because it is caused by the fibers that make hard concrete becomes solid. However, for all proportions of fiber, it still qualifies minimum tensile strength to be achieved ie 8% of the compressive strength of the plan.
105 257 The Analysis of Ancol Polder System as Flood Prevention Infrastructure in Jakarta Rian Mantasa Salve Prastican.a

Flooding in Jakarta is a common phenomenon that caused by climate changes. One of the government actions is building polders in Jakarta to prevent the flooding. However, these polders seem not significantly affecting. This research aims to analyse Ancol Polder in North Jakarta as flood prevention infrastructure. This research uses Muskingum Cunge and O’Donnel and Muskingum Extended methods to analyse the hydrographs. This research analyses the performance of channel capacity by HEC-RAS modelling approach and observes its stabilization using GeoStudio 2012. The existing condition of the channel still accommodates the maximum outflow that enters the stream. Furthermore, its stability is safe in all of reviewed STA in Pademangan Timur channel.
106 261 The impact of drainage towards roads in maintenance cost Erna Ismiyani, Dewi Handayani , Rr. Rintis Hadiani

An ideal roads infrastructure is low cost maintenance, better performance of roads and drainage systems. Disintegrated maintenance system between road and drainage is the major cause of increasing road maintenance cost. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the impact of drainage towards roads in maintenance cost. This paperis located in Surakarta which was divided into eight catchment areas. The main variables of this paper are cost maintenance of drainage and roads, which were analyzed using regression. These variable data were obtained from total cost per year allocated by Surakarta City Government on urban drainage and local road maintenance budget from 2013 to 2017. The results showed that low drainage maintenance cost tended to result in high road maintenance cost.

Infrastructure development with PPP(Public Private Partnership) scheme is a relatively new concept applied by the Indonesian construction industry as an alternative to overcome delays and the low absorption of the Indonesian Government Budget (APBN) and Regional Government Budget(APBD) in the procurement of basic infrastructure. However, in practice, the failure rate of government in carrying out infrastructure projects with PPP scheme is high. The failure of PPP project is generally caused by the way the government works in preparing projects that are not adjusted to the needs of PPP, the constraints of land acquisition, poor coordination between central and local government,participation, and overlapping regulations. This raises the question of how to know the condition of government readiness in implementing projects under PPP scheme and identify the constraints affecting government readiness. This study develops an assessment that can be used to assess government readiness in implementing projects under PPP scheme. Factors and indicators used in the system were developed based on three studies on readiness assessment system in various countries, namely: Public-Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure Toolkit from PPPIRC World Bank, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The assessment will be used to assess the level of preparedness and constraints faced by the government of Bandung in implementing the project LRT Bandung.
108 266 Predicting Heave on The Expansive Soil Willis Diana, Anita Widianti, Edi Hartono, Agus Setyo Muntohar

The heave of expansive soil information is a fundamental part of the preparation of a foundation design to accommodate the anticipated volume change and consequences associated with the foundation movement over the design life of the structure. The one-dimensional oedometer is most widely accepted method to identified and evaluated the amount of swell that may occur. Although oedometer is used extensively for evaluating the amount of heave, the procedures used are quite varied, and few of the methods have been validated experimentally. An objective of this research study is to briefly explain common practices and existing heave prediction by oedometer methods and then, validate by experimental laboratory heave test using soil sample from Ngawi. The two prediction methods provided results that represent low and upper bound predictions of the actual soil heave movement in the laboratory. The difference between the prediction with heave measurement about 29,50% and 45,02%, respectively.
109 267 Water table evaluation post the construction of canal blocks on peatland in West Kalimantan, Indonesia Henny Herawati, Aji Ali Akbar, Dwi Farastika, Azmeri

Human activities on peatlands are generally followed by the creation of canal network serving as access to the peatlands. This canal network also serves to reduce the water table in peat, so that the aerobic condition suitable for agriculture is achieved. The existence of canal network affects the hydrological function of peat ecosystem in West Kalimantan, particularly in causing drought and peatland fires in dry season. The natural hydrological functions of peat ecosystem are to absorb water during rainy season and to release water during dry season. The existence of canals causes the water to flow out easily through the canal without being able to be retained by the peat. Therefore, a repressive effort is required to maintain water table in peatland. A countermeasure that can be applied to restore peat is by constructing canal blocks on the established canals. The purpose of canal blocking is to retain water, thus keeping the peatland wet. This study was conducted on peatland in Wajok Hilir Village, Mempawah Regency, West Kalimantan Province. Based on the water table evaluation result on peatland with and without blocked canal, it is identified that peatland surrounding blocked canal had smaller water table fluctuation than the peatland surrounding unblocked canal during 1 tidal period. This research concludes that the construction of canal block helps retain water longer in peatland so that water table can be maintained in short term and is expected to restore hydrological function of peatland in the long term.
110 272 OPTIMIZATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING ON WASTE MANAGEMENT BY USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL (A Case Study on Waste Management in Sragen) Albert Pramono Soesanto , Mochammad Solikin , Purwanti Sri Pudyastutin.a

The government as the policy maker is responsible to make optimized infrastructure planning on waste management by considering several priorities on the purposes. This research aims to identify to what extent the infrastructure planning on waste management optimization in accordance to the medium-term goal of Sragen governmental agency. The research method used in this study is descriptive quantitative research by using secondary data. This research applies linear programming model to meet the optimization of infrastructure planning on waste management in Sragen until year 2026. The aim of this optimization is to minimize the continual operational and maintenance budgets in accordance to waste management regulation in each sub-district of Sragen. Based on the proposed model on infrastructure planning on waste management, in year 2026 it is projected that the number of population is 870,221 and the quantity of waste generation is 2,393m3 a day; it means that 450 units dump cart, 8 units waste-carrying motorcycle, 18 units containers with 6 m3 capacity, 31 units temporal dump, 46 units 3R waste handling, 12 units armroll truck, and 63 units dump truck with 10 m3 capacity are needed. The operational and maintenance budgets cost Rp. 30,300,580,120 a year.
111 273 Predicting bending creep of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) beams from initial creep test data Achmad Basuki, Ali Awaludin, Bambang Suhendro, Suprapto Siswosukarto

This paper presents the results of creep tests of Laminated Veneer Lumber Sengon (LVL Sengon) beams, aiming to determine the creep factor and to establish the prediction beam deflection based on the initial creep test data. The LVL Sengon beams having cross section of 40 mm by 80 mm and a clear span length of 2,000 mm were loaded at midspan for three different stress level: 30%, 40%, and 50% of the ultimate load within 30, 60, and 90 days. At each loading level consists of four repetitive beams where one beam was wrapped with plastis sheet. The test results showed that for 90 days bending creep test can not be determined the secondary creep yet. Curve fitting of bending creep test data indicated that the parameters of Modified Burger creep model of the first 30 days can be accurately used to predict the beam deflection curve up to 60 and 90 days of loading.
112 274 One-way translational magnetic mass damper model for structural response control against dynamic loadings Nurulashikin Bahaman, Sk Muiz Sk Abdul Razak, Norrazman Zaiha Zainol, Norhaizura Yahya, Khairunnisa Muhamad, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman, Mazizah Ezdiani Mohamad

Structural responsesshouldbereduced to minimize the consequent structural damages caused by dynamic excitation. One-waytranslationalmagnetic mass damper model isdeveloped as a new type of damper for the purpose of structural response control. The damper utilizes the concept of repulsive force between magnets withsamepoles to create a magnetic force to stabilize or bring the structure back to its original position. The dynamic performance of structure wastestedusing a harmonicshaking table to test the response of structure. In thisstudy, threeparametersused are excitation speeds: 2.5V (low), 6.0V (medium) and 8.5V (high); strength of magnets: weak (N35), medium (N45) and strong (N52) and the mass in the damper: 40 g, 101 g and 162 g. The correlations of parameterstowards the structural displacement are verified in the testing. The displacementishighlyreduced up to 100% at the first level and 85.2% at the fifthlevel. The most optimum structural response control wasattainedwhenstrongmagneticstrength and mass of 162 g are used. Whentestedwiththree speed of excitation; 2.5V, 6.0V and 8.5V, the damper withthis setting provide the optimum dampingeffecttowards the structure in term of displacement.
113 275 The Effect of Lime Addition in Physical and Mechanical Soil Properties Due to Drying Process on Bengawan Solo River Embankment in Plangwot Area, Lamongan Alpha Rizky Utthea Rahma Putri, Ria Asih Aryani Soemitro , Dwa Desa Warnana , Januarti Jaya Ekaputri, Yerry Kahaditu Firmansyah

Drying process occurs in embankment soil may affect the physical and mechanical properties. This phenomenon occurs as a result of the change in soil volume due to the decreasing of water content. This research is located on Bengawan Solo River embankment in Plangwot Area, Lamongan. River embankments built by river bed material are easily eroded by river flow. Soil improvement is needed to make river embankment more stable. In this research, active lime CaOH2 used as chemical stabilization material. This research is an experimental study at laboratory using disturbed samples that, consist of standard proctor, volumetry, gravimetry, suction, and unconfined compressive test. The results showed that stabilized soil with 7% lime gave optimum result compared with 3%, 11%, 15% lime content. The maximum dry density of natural soil 1,43 t/m3 increased to 1,47 t/m3. The specific gravity of soil increased from 2,603 to 2,651. Void ratio (e) decreased by an average 12,01 %, degree of saturation (Sr) decreased by 8,672 %, weight volume of soil (?t) increased by an average 4,093%, value of cohesion (Cu) increased by an average of 25,11%. Based on these results, 7% CaOH2 addition could improve physical and mechanical embankment soil properties on drying process.
114 276 Evaluation of Bond Strength Between Normal Concrete and High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete(HPFRC) Nur Adibah Ayuni Abd Malek, Khairunnisa Muhamad, Mohd Zulham Affandi Mohd Zahid, Nur Ain Hamiruddin, Norrazman Zaiha Zainol, Norhaizura Yahya, Nurulashikin Bahaman

High Performance FiberReinforcedConcrete (HPFRC) has been proposed to beused as repairmaterial for a deterioration of concrete structure sinceitsverylowporositythat lead to lowpermeability and high durability. This characteristicmakingitsuitable for rehabilitation and retrofittingreinforcedconcrete structures or for use as a new repairmaterial. The bond strength between HPFRC and oldconcreteshouldbe good bond strength, thus surface preparationmethod and curingmethodcan help to strengthen the bond strength between HPFRC and normal concrete. This paperwasperformed to study the effect of surface preparation and curingmethod on the bond strength between HPFRC and normal concrete. In thisstudy, three surface preparationwasprepared:sandblasting, grooved and drill hole. Then, curingmethodthatwereperformed in thisstudy are ambient curing and water curing. Test wasconducted to evaluate the bond strength between HPFRC and normal concrete are slantshear test and splittingtensile test. The resultfromthisstudy show thatsandblastinggive the highest bond strength resultbetween normal concrete and HPFRC. For curingmethod, water curinggives the highest bond strength between normal concrete and HPFRC.
115 277 Application of Microtremor HVSR Method for Preliminary Assesment of Seismic Site Effect in Ngipik Landfill, Gresik Siti Nurlita Fitri, Ria Asih Aryani Soemitro, Dwa Dewa Warnana, Nila Sutra

This Paper present investigation the local site effect of the earthquake based on microtremor horizontal-to-vertical ratio (HVSR) method at Ngipik Landfill, Gresik. Ngipik landfill use Open dumping system which does not have a protection layer to prevent groundwater pollution. Hence, the site effect was investigated to preliminary assessment of leachate’s leakage due to earthquake. The microtremor measurements were performed by dividing the area into a grid with distance 25m. The predominant frequency (f0) ranges between 1.1 and 3.65 Hz and peak of HVSR (Am) varies from 2.04 to 7.16. The vulnerability index (kg) evidenced the level of soil damage due to ground motions; highest kg value identified the weak zone during earthquake and indicated the leachate spread. The result of this paper might be consideration to seismic stability analysis of leachate recirculation landfill.
116 278 A study on association between tilt angle, Solar Insolation exposure and output of solar PV panel using BIM 3D modelling Nur Adibah Ayuni Abd Malek, Jian Ming Chew, Nurul Akmam Naamandadin, Norrazman Zaiha Zainol, Khairunnisa Muhammad

An intelligent 3D model-based process, Building Information Modelling (BIM) can be merged with the solar energy application to reduce the dependency of non-renewable energy. This study attempted to propose a model of solar analysis by using BIM software. In order to utilise the BIM for solar analysis, field work had been carried out on the existing building at Padang Besar. The data obtained, aided the BIM software to apply the solar panel on existing building with its best orientation and optimum tilt angle. The finding shows that the ideal location of solar panel installation is to be tilted 10º and North 20º West on July 2017. During the testing, relative humidity percentage, wind speed and ambient temperature towards solar energy production had been also verified. Analysis indicates that, higher wind speed poses larger air movement which increased the possibility of clear sky. Thus, it enables the higher transmission of solar irradiance. Data from the fieldwork which then merged with the BIM software shows more convenient way to generate solar panel proposal compared to traditional method. The finding from solar analysis of the proposed model indicates that, solar insolation exposure on the roof, increase 14.4% compared to the existing roof design. Therefore, it can increase the renewable energy potential in an effective way.
117 279 The Implementation of Sustainable Concept in Waste Management through Project Life Cycle Process in Gold Coast Zhabrinna, M. Mirza Abdillah Pratama

Sustainability issue has emerged significantly in the construction industry. The appealing concept and the future benefits of sustainability have enamoured people to implement this notion progressively. This situation resulted a trend in the architectural and engineering world. The Gold Coast city, which is located in the southeast of the Australian state of Queensland, is one of the world leading examples in which government has put a green legacy as the concern in its development. One of the implementations of its sustainability concept is described in its waste management. This study explores the waste management in Gold Coast city in three stages of project life cycle (PLC): design, construction, and operation. The cost-benefit analysis in qualitative and quantitative approach will be employed to provide the explanation of cost reduction that is achieved by the implementation of specific actions. However, the result of this study shows that the implementation of waste management does not only benefit in cost, but also many other aspects such as energy, built-environment, diversity, carbon critical design, and community lifestyle. This exploration can be the reference to the best practice of sustainability concept implementation in waste management.
118 285 System Model For Physical Conditions of Road Components In Magetan District Ferro Gadha Gilang Kencana, Ary Setyawan, Syafi’I

Road Is an important component for a region, as well as for Magetan Regency, its position is located at the end of East Java, making the road infrastructure very useful. For this reason, it is necessary to assess the condition of the pavement and the outer side of the pavement . and get the following results. The assessment model of the national road component condition in Magetan district was developed by adopting a condition index system according to the weight and hierarchy of each road component. The weighting of road components using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method through questionnaires resulted in the weight of pavement components 0 , 80 and for the components outside the pavement of 0.20 with the road shoulder sub component having a weight of 0.37; drainage channel / edge 0.33; edge slopes 0.15; sidewalks of 0.09 and 0.06 and pavement values ??using the PCI method, where the results of road performance when observed from pavement or out of pavement spawn periodic maintenance
119 288 Effects of Microbial Agents to The Properties of Fly Ash-Based Paste Kiki Dwi Wulandari, Januarti Jaya Ekaputri, Triwulan, Chikako Fujiyama, Davin H. E. Setiamarga

Specific microbial agents such as bacteria are often used in concrete to improve the concrete’s performance. Some microbes act as self-healing agents to close cracks in concrete, and to increase concrete strength. This paper presents a study to observe the effects of microbes addition to two types of concrete mixtures, the fly ash-based, as geopolymer paste and cement paste. Furthermore, the investigation was conducted to compare the properties of each paste, such as its compressive strengths, specific gravities, microstructures, and x-ray diffracting properties. The results indicate that microbial activities positively more affected the properties of geopolymer paste more than cement paste. The result reported here strongly suggests that fly ash can be used to produce a high quality, but environmental friendly, construction material, when its mixed together with useful microbes.
120 289 Experimental Study of Accelerating Early Age Concrete Strength under Elevated Temperature, Steaming, and Chemical Admixture Addition of Normal and High Strength Concrete Suryawan Murtiadi, Akmaluddin Akmaluddin, Buan Anshari, Suparjo Suparjo

Conventionally, curing is performed by moisturizing concrete periodically where the fresh concrete still undergoing chemical reaction processes. This study focused on early age concrete strength treated with special curing of early heating treatment and steaming. The addition of chemical accelerator and normal curing are also examined. Tests were conducted on normal and high strength concrete specimens. Treatments of the test specimens with steaming and early heating were carried out for 3 and 8 hours, respectively, at temperature of about 70° C. Test results showed that concrete compressive strengths gained in 3-days compared to 28-days under normal curing, chemical accelerator addition, steam curing, and elevated temperature curing were 39%, 50%, 64% and 59%, respectively. The concrete strengths in 7-days were 66%, 75%, 80% and 83%, respectively. While in 14-days were 87%, 91%, 93% and 93%, respectively. For high-strength concrete, the compressive strengths gained in 3-days were 37%, 62%, 68% and 71%, respectively. The concrete strengths in 7-days were 65%, 77%, 83% and 82%, respectively. And in 14-days were 85%, 89%, 90% and 93%, respectively. Test results indicated that the additions of chemical accelerator, steam and elevated temperature curing in order to obtain the high early age concrete strengths are highly recommended.
121 295 Performance Evaluation of a Trunk-A Road in North Central Nigeria Mustapha Mohammed Alhaji, Musa Alhassan

A trunk-A road of about 120km, spanning through Bida basin, from Bida to Mokwa, within Niger State of Nigeria, and which was constructed over 22 years ago was recently rehabilitated by complete reconstruction in 2015. This was as a result of the combined effort of the Nigerian Government and the World Bank, who sees to the rigorous monitoring and supervision of the road during the reconstruction. The reconstruction essentially involved resurfacing of the entire stretch of the road, with complete replacement of base and sub-base course materials at portions where complete failure was observed. Where base course was replaced, stone base was used as against lateritic material, used on the existing road. Before the replacement, the strength of the resultant sub-base and subgrade were tested using Dynamic Cone Penetration test (DCPT). Thereafter, the entire road was resurfaced with quality asphalt concrete. In July 2017, a performance evaluation was carried out at five selected positions within the road to assess the strength and stability of the road after two years of reconstruction. This was done by coring the asphalt concrete for complete pavement evaluation and conducting DCPT test below the hole created by the corer from the base course through the sub-base course to the sub-grade course. The results obtained from both the pavement evaluation as well as the Dynamic Cone Penetration tests were compared with those carried out during reconstruction. It was observed that the two results have very good agreement. However, one position showed slightly lower strength, probably due to the influence of erected speed bump on this position.
122 297 Are Indonesia Contractors Ready to Implement Last Planner System? - An Early Investigation Jati Utomo Dwi Hatmoko, Human Adi Darmawan, Zuldi Sabrian, Mochamad Agung Wibowo

Last Planner System (LPS) is one of Lean Construction’s tools for scheduling that can enhance reliability, productivity, and performance of construction project significantly. Developed in 1999 by Ballard, it has already been widely adopted in many developed countries, and shown positive impacts for many projects, such as shorter project completion, less rework, better communication. Despite its benefits, the use of LPS is almost unheard in Indonesia construction projects. The aim of this exploratory research is to investigatereadiness of LPS implementation for Indonesia projects. The assessment is based on five principles of LPS, i.e. Master Schedule, Pull Planning, Making Work Ready, Weekly Work Plan, and Learning, using four categories of assessment, i.e. not aware, aware, willing, and implemented. The levels of readiness are categorised into none, poor, moderate, high and excellent. Data was collected by interviews and questionaire survey with project managers and observations in four construction projects. The results show that on average the readiness level is moderate, particularly for Pull Planning and Look-ahead Plan. Main challenges identified include lack of confidence and resistance to change. These research findings provide initial understanding of LPS as perceived by contractors, and later can be used as inputs to build strategic framework to enable wider LPS adoption to improve Indonesia project performance.
123 298 A Comparison of Retrofitting Methods on Nursing Faculty Building of Andalas University with Concrete Jacketing and Shear Wall Systems Fauzan, Febrin Anas Ismail, Oswin Dezardo, Zev Al Jauhari

Nursing Faculty building is one of the building to fulfill the administrative eligibility in Andalas University, Padang –Indonesia, which was designed by a designed consultant based on the Indonesian standard code. During the building construction, the concrete quality was found not in accordance with the designed concrete quality and construction was terminated by the owner. A structural evaluation of the building is carried out based on Indonesia seismic code SNI 03-2847-2012. The results show that the building is not strong enough to withstand the combination of the loads acting on the structure, especially earthquake load. Three methods were proposed to retrofit the building; by increasing the dimensions of the cross-section and add reinforcement to the structural elements (jacketing) and by adding some structural wall at the site of the planned with the aim to rigidify the building (shear wall). It is found that the two retrofitting methods are effective in reducing the internal forces and displacement on the building structures and the building is capable of resisting the working loads. Comparing the two retrofitting methods, the concrete jacketing column is more cost-effective than the shear wall method.
124 300 Survey, Investigation and Repairing on Concrete Wall of Waste Water Treatment Building Partogi H Simatupang, Jonbi

Waste Water Treatment Building of Multi National Company located in Cikande of Banten Province in Indonesia has experienced a poor function due to seepage and leakage on its reinforced concrete walls. The height of the reinforced concrete wall was 12 meters. This paper describes the surveys, investigations and repairing conducted to overcome the seepage and leaks in the reinforced concrete walls. The feasibility of its concrete was investigated using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV). The feasibility of the concrete was reviewed with 2 (two) factors : (1) homogeneity and (2) crack depth. The result of the survey and investigation showed that the quality of homogeneity was enough and pretty good and the average crack depth was about h = 102,5 mm. The method of repairing used were : (1) crack injection using epoxy, (2) leakage injection using cement modified polymer material and (2) waterproof coating using cement based coating. To prove the success of the repairing, pond testing was conducted for 14 days. Based on the test result, there was no leakage and seepage during the pond testing.
125 304 The Management Strategy for Government Building Disposal Process in Jakarta Mulyadi, Ayomi Rarasati

The feasibility of government building, especially offices and schools as public service and social infrastructures, must be well maintained. When the building needs to be majorly rehabilitated, the government sometimes has to combine building demolition and deconstruction process. In the government asset management cycle, the process starts from erasing the asset from the accountancy system, by selecting a building demolition contractor, then produce a new asset, by selecting other builder contractor. In the past few years, the duration of this actual process acquired longer than the planned time. Therefore, this research aims to develop the management strategy in order to improve the government building disposal process. The process of the research is started from obtaining the dominant factors that influence the demolition and deconstruction process, and then it is continued by developing the strategy.
126 306 Comprehensive condition assessment program on the fire damaged structure – a project case in Singapore Gunawan Budi Wijaya

A fire damaged structure at eastern part of Singapore was assessed. Some concrete spalling exposing corroded steel reinforcements were noted on the post tensioned concrete beam and reinforced concrete slab, raising a concern on the structural integrity of the overall floor. A comprehensive condition assessment was performed on the affected structural elements to determine the extent of the damage, which included some on-site destructive and non-destructive tests as well as some laboratory testing on the collected concrete and steel samples. Testing data revealed that the concrete was still in consistently good condition with the average residual compressive strength of 36.51MPa. Petrographic examinations suggested that the top 5mm of concrete surface might be exposed to a temperature not more than 450oC. The steel reinforcement and post tension strands were found to be still in good condition as well. The findings of these assessment will then be used for further structural assessment to determine the most effective structural rehabilitation program.
127 311 Application of Android-based Parking Violations Reporting System to Support Green Campus Program Setiono, Budi Yulianto

The use of private vehicles by the academic community of SebelasMaretUniversity (UNS) is increasing every year. This has resulted in reduced availability of vehicle parking spaces, thus impacting the emergence of illegal parking and violation of parking rules. In relation to the vision of the UNS rector mission to green campus policy that seeks to reduce CO2 in the campus environment, therefore, it is necessary to make vehicle parking arrangement on campus area. The purpose of this study is to conduct parking management and develop law enforcement parking vehicles system based on internet and android technology. Android-based parking violations reporting application, called BuSet Parking App is developed. The analysis of vehicle parking characteristic results show the parking index value at motorcycles and cars parking areas areabove 1.0 at certain time, thus causing parking violations.The BuSet Parking App records the location and time of the parking violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information is connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the parking law enforcement process. With this technology, then sustainable transport efforts by controlling the number of parking vehicles in the campus environment can be done effectively and efficiently.
128 312 High volume fly ash as substitution of fine aggregates with the proportion of 50%, 60%, and 70% to the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams Ade Lisantono, Haryanto Yoso Wigroho, Daniel Krisna Murti

Indonesia has plenty of fly ash as waste materials of coal-burning thermal power station. Fly ash usually was used as supplementary cementitious material in concrete. One of the basic materials of concrete is fine aggregates which are taken from natural resources. Substitution of fine aggregates by using high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) can be safe the natural deposit of fine aggregates. The fly ash with the portion of 50 %; 60 %; and 70 % as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete were carried out to study the effect on the shear strength of reinforced concrete beam through experimental program. Eight beams were cast and tested. Two beams were cast and made of normal concrete as control beams, while six others beams were cast and made of HVFAC as replacement of fine aggregates by mass (two beams with 50 % of fly ash; two beams with 60 % of fly ash; two beams with 70 % of fly ash). There were no shear reinforcements in the shear-test regions of the beams. The experiment results show that the load-carrying capacities of HVFAC beams were increasing with the increasing of the portion of fly ash as replacement of fine aggregates.
129 313 Corporate entrepreneurship level: a case study of contractors in Indonesia Harijanto Setiawan, Bilge Erdogan

Contractors need to assess their capability to implement corporate entrepreneurship (CE), in order to develop the proper corporate strategy based on CE. This study is aimed to assess the capability level of contractors to implement CE using corporate entrepreneurship capability model (CECM). CECM has been developed based on the concept of Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The capability level of contractors to implement CE is assesed using 21 indicators those are classified into five dimensions: autonomy, competitive aggressiveness, innovativeness, proactiveness and risk taking. CECM divides the capability of contractors to implement CE into four levels: initial, repeatable, managed and optimized. This study carried out case study in 2 big contractors in Indonesia. The data was collected using questionnaire and then arithmetic mean of each indicator was calculated to determine the capability level of contractor to implement CE. The case study found the highest level of capability to implement CE is reached in two different indicators: innovativeness and proactiveness, meanwhile the lowest level for both contractors is risk taking. This study also found the capability level of both contractors are at level between managed and optimized.
130 316 Ground Anchors Corrosion – The Beginning of the Ende Hung-Jiun, Liaon.a

Ground anchors corrosion is a common problem for anchored slopes in Taiwan. It is partly due to the humid climate condition and abundant groundwater in the slope and partly due to poor corrosion protection of anchor design and construction. In 2010, an anchored slope at Taiwan National Freeway No. 3failed suddenly after 13 years in service. It buried 3 cars and killed 4 people. It caught the public attention and initiated the island-wide program on over hauling the anchors slopes in Taiwan.Since this event, the Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MOTC) of Taiwan government had launched an extensive inspection and maintenance program for the existing anchored slopes along the freeways, highways, and railways. Totally, more than 100,000 ground anchors had been inspected. This paper will evaluate the findings from this inspectionprogram. It includes (1) the status quo of the anchorsregarding the corrosion condition and the residual load remained on the existing anchors; (2) remedialmeasures taken to sustain the serviceability of existing corroding anchors; (3) measures taken to enhance the long term durability of new anchors without changing the strand material and the practice of anchorconstruction commonly used by the local contractors.
131 318 Design and optimization of a rubber-bitumen blend in preparation for a rubberized-asphalt road trial in the State of Kuwait Salah E. Zoorob, Suad K. Al-Bahar, Saud F. Al-Otaibi

In this paper, test results are presented from laboratory trials of blending discarded tire derived crumb rubber with 60/70pen grade Kuwaiti bitumen. The virgin bitumen, in addition to 15% and 18% crumb rubber blends were tested for PG grading and multiple stress creep recovery at temperatures in the range from 40°C to 70°C. Elastic recovery and non-recoverable creep compliance showed optimum performance at 18% rubber content. The optimized rubberized-bitumen blend was next converted into a pelletized form which was then used as partial substitute to the conventional bitumen in the manufacture of continuously graded hot mix asphalts at various binder contents. The rubberized-bitumen pellet contents trialed were 2.5%, 3.0% and 3.5% by mass of mix. The Marshall method of mix design was used to assess the various mixes and overall the volumetric, stability and flow results, though satisfactory, were not entirely sufficient to aid in the selection of the best performing formulation.
132 320 Crashworthiness assessment of double-hull tanker structures under ship grounding actions Aditya Rio Prabowo, Jung Min Sohn, Dong Myung Bae, Bangun IR Harsritanton.a

Ship grounding is considered as serious maritime accident which highly contributes to environmental pollution. This impact phenomenon attracts audiences to be studied and assessed, since in instantaneous moment, oil or waste from damaged bottom tank can spill and contaminate wide water territory. In this study, grounding scenario is modelled as hard grounding which a rock geometry is chosen as representative of oceanic obstruction. Contribution of several main parameters, such as target component and oceanic obstruction are evaluated. The method is applying virtual experiment by nonlinear finite element (FE) method to conduct simulation. A chemical tanker is taken as representative of a marine structure which is subjected to impact load on its bottom structure during interaction with the obstruction. The results indicate that the space between girders provides less resistance in crushing process. The internal energy in this work is presented to estimate strength capability of the impacted component, which is followed by the deformation pattern on the lower part of the bottom structure. Finally, effect of the obstruction on failure sequences in grounding is summarised.
133 322 The Analysis of Land Use Weights on Road Traces Selection Indrayani, Erika Buchari, Dinar D.A.Putranto, Edward Saleh

Land use is a basic factor in determining road traces for residential, industrial or other space areas. The existence of spatial will affect the class road, where the construction of new roads should not spoil the existing spatial. In swamp areas, land use is more dominated by agriculture, plantations, and forests such as the presence of swamp areas in Banyuasin District, South Sumatra Province [1][2][13]. The development of swamp areas that are currently being upgraded requires road infrastructure, so it is necessary to undertake a study of the selection of road traces based on existing land use, then in order to gain priority of land use base on the importance level on the selection of road traces required opinion from stakeholders, so the selection of road traces in swamp areas can be more economical. Data collection was done through questionnaires distributed to respondents from stakeholders related to road and environmental field, then analysis of importance level was done using AHP method. From the analysis results obtained the weights of the importance of land use for the selection road traces namely shrub/ bushes (29.99%), plantation (22.79%), rice field (19,74%), settlements (10.48%), forest (9.77%), water body (7.22%).
134 323 Performance of Glue Laminated Timber Beams Composed of Sengon Wood (Albizia falcatara) and Coconut Wood (Cocos nucifera) with Nylon-Threads Reinforcement Kusnindar, Sri Murni Dewi, Agoes Soemardjono MD, Wisnumurti

This paper aims to describe the performance of mix-glue laminated timber beams that are given a nylon strapping as external reinforcement with the three-point bending test to three groups of beams based on the span to depth ratio, ie: G11, G8,and G5 groups. Each group consists of three types of laminations composition, namely: Type I, whole lamination consists of sengon wood; Type II, the placement of the coconut wood lamination as the outermost; Type III, similar to type II and add nylon straps with a distance of 5 mm. The bending test results show differences in elastic modulus, flexural strength and shear strength of glue-laminated timber beams. Based on the comparison of glulam beams consisting of six laminations of sengon wood it was found that the placement of the coconut wood as the outermost lamination succeeded in increasing the elastic modulus, the flexural and shear strength of beams by 28%, 13%,and 34%, respectively. In addition, the reinforcement with nylon straps results in the modulus of elasticity, bending and shear strength of glulam by 41%, 2%,and 49% respectively.
135 338 Assessment of a temporary protection infra- structure performance related to tidal flood in Mulyorejo, Pekalongan, Indonesia Jonathan Lekkerkerk, Slamet Imam Wahyudi, Lucas Bakker, Matties Van de Ven, Daan Vermeer, Henny Pratiwi Adin.a

During the last 20 years Pekalongan was flooded by tide and rainfall that had a big impact on the Mulyorejoarea as pilot project. There was a lot of rice fields turned into fishponds. The land is located below sea and river water level. The objectives of the research are to assesstemporary polder infrastructure, to analysis in-out flow and its water balance. The research knows different stages of the investigation and data collection that containswater system analysis.Mulyorejo has acatchment area of 1,841,148 m2 (184 ha) that contain of houses, batik industry, office, schools, agriculture and aquaculture. The polder system has different inlets i.e.Meduri river, rainfall, southern canal.And there are water outlet like pumps and evapotranspiration.To design for t=25 year rainfall return periods getting of 187,797 m3/hour and to analysis a water balance.The area has a large surplus of 186,950 m3/hour water.The method ‘Bakkenmodel’ used to visualize the different of waterways, inlet and outlet and retention areas.The pond will secure a retention capacity of 37,372 m³. Also, a new pump house will drain water into SengkarangRiver Instead OfMeduri River.
136 339 Data Mining Applied for Earthworks Optimisation of a Toll Road Construction Project Andri Irfan Rifai, Yusuf Latief, Leni Sagita Riantin.a

The length of the toll roads operating in Indonesia is still lower than in other countries. Significant acceleration is needed to keep up with the country’s traffic needs. Acceleration of development should be supported by the development capacities of road operators, one such capacity being earthworks. Data on earthworks can be utilised as a knowledge base and processed via a data mining approach, the results of which form the basis for interpretation and productivity predictions. The aim of this study is to develop a decision support system for the earthworksof a toll road construction project using the approach of data mining historicalcases. The data mining approach used artificial neural network and support vector machine analysis methods. The result ismulti-objective optimisation with a genetic algorithmusing real-world data from previous Indonesian toll road construction. This workaims to present a practical alternative for the optimisation of earthworks.
137 340 Analysis of Floating House Platform Stability Using Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe Material Aswad Asrasal, Slamet Imam Wahyudi, Henny Pratiwi Adi, Rick Heikoop

The highdemand for land to build, making the price of land more expensive. Various efforts were made to get land to buildhouses, one of them by way of coastalreclamation. The pond area initiallyfunctioned as a water catchment area, but laterbecame the new lands throughreclamationprocess. This will have adverse impacts on the environmentsuch as flooding due to lack of water storage. To overcome the problem of the lack of land thenneeded a way to build in the coastal area withoutreclaiming one of themiswithfloating house. Floating house is building structure that floats on water surface by leaning to drowned area weight as weight parameter which the structure could handle.This research is done to analyze the material platform. PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) pipe is used with floating force (Fa) parameter and cost plan analysis. The structure weight analysis total result (G) is 555,887.5 Newton. The floating force of structure platform is 648.792 Newton. The connection system is a bolt connection system, 3 cm in diameter with an anchor length of 22 cm, total 4 bolts on each connection. Cost plan analysis using PVC pipe materials costs IDR 379.500.000,00.
138 341 Reducing carbon emission in construction base on project life cycle (PLC) Mochamad Agung Wibowo, Subrata Aditama K.A.Uda

The construction sector accounts for nearly 40% of global energy annually where 1/3 of it will produce emissions of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere[1]. Carbon Emissions (CO2) is a major cause of the greenhouse effect, one of which is produced from the combustion process of fossil fuels. Increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere will lead to rising temperatures trapped in the atmosphere causing global warming. There is a lot of literature on carbon emission discussions using multiple analytical approaches, but some are reviewing the Project Life Cycle (PLC) approach. This paper will discuss about carbon emission mitigation during the life cycle of a construction project (Project Life Cycle (PLC)). Reduction of carbon emissions can be done since the initiation, design and construction phase of the Project Life Cycle (PLC). This literature study will produce a strategy that can have a significant impact on reducing the amount of carbon occurring in any construction project activity.
139 342 Waterproofing practices in Australia for the Building Construction Rasiah Sriravindrarajah, Elizebeth Trann.a

Waterproofing is an essential component in building construction to maintain the integrity of buildings with reduced maintenance cost. A comprehensive waterproofing system, an integrated combination of factors, includes product selection, membrane detail, substrate preparation, design, installation and maintenance. It is designed to work under different environment conditions, substrate and applications. Proper understanding of the issues related to waterproofing membrane systems is important to minimise the waterproofing failures in both commercial and residential buildings. This paper aims to discuss Standards and Codes; membrane systems and performance, waterproofing practices, design and installation techniques, inspection and testing and quality assurance adopted by the waterproofing industry in Australia.
140 343 Improvement the California Bearing Ratio of Expansive Subgrade using SiCC Column Muntohar, A.S., Diana, W, Hartono, E., Widianti, A.n.a

In Indonesia, many main roadshave been constructed on the problematic soil.The chemical improvement is widely used to shallow soil modification and stabilization. This paper introduces the use of SiCC column to strengthen the load-bearing capacity of the expansive soil. In the road pavement design, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is a most useful parameter to define the pavement layers. Hence, this paper is aimed to investigate the effect of SiCC column on the CBR of compacted expansive soil. Two groups of specimenswere prepared for CBR test under soaked condition. A set of specimens are prepared on the wet side (Specimen A), and a set of specimens are compacted on the dry side of optimum moisture content (Specimen B). The objective of this research is to determine the effect of moisture content and dry density on the CBR value. The experiments result that the SiCC column significantly increases the CBR of expansive soil on both dry and wet side of optimum moisture content. The specimen compacted on the dry side exhibit a higher CBR than the specimen compacted on the wet side of optimum moisture content.